ТОР 5 статей:
Обучение письму и письменной речи 6 страница
Most experts contend that expense and lack of fuel efficiency will keep power plants such as the Stirling external-combustion engine and the gas turbine from replacing the internal-combustion engine.
Predictions are that there could be more chances in automotive fuels than in the cars themselves. The use of gasohol, a blend of 90 per cent regular unleaded gasoline and 10 per cent alcohol, will be widespread by 1995.
It is very likely, however, that gasoline will be mixed with methanol made from coal.
Experts believe that some 100000 electric vehicles will be operating in the US by 1S85 and that the number could grow to 8.6 million by the year 2000.
Some of these vehicles will be powered entirely by batteries. Others will be "hybrids" - vehicles with batteries and small gasoline engines that would in whenever the battery runs low or the driver needs an extra burst of power.
1. In what way will the future car differ from the one people drive today?
2. What do people usually need big family cars for?
3. What kind of materials could provide further weight reduction?
4. How could additional improvements in fuel efficiency be achieved?
5. What types of engines will be most commonly used?
6. What will fuel pumps be replaced by?
7. Why do experts think that the Stirling engine and the gas turbine wilt not replace the internal-combustion engine?
8. What kind of fuel believed to be widely used by I985?
9. What do experts predict about the electric vehicles?
10. What kind of vehicle is called a "hybrid"?
3. Put the sentences in chronological order according to the text:
1. Greater use of elastics, aluminium and tight-weight steel alloys is expected.
2. Big cars will be too expensive to operate for everyday use.
3. Experts believe that some 100000 electric vehicles will be operating in the US by 1965.
4. Predictions are that there could be morn changes in automotive fuels than in the cars themselves.
5. Fuel pumps are already giving way to electronically controlled injection systems that squirt gasoline directly into the combustion chambers.
4. Complete the sentences:
1. Most will have front-wheal drive ... .
2. Big cars will be too expensive ... .
3. Further weight reductions could be achieved ... .
4. Engines will be controlled by solid-state ...
5. The use of gasohol, a bland of 90 per cent ... .
6. Some of these vehicles will be powered ... .
1. Study the word list:
simulate – симулировать, походить на что-либо
approximate – приблизительный, близкий
deceleration – уменьшение скорости, замедление
sensitive - чувствительный
barrier – барьер, препятствие
unrestraint - несдержанность
launch – пускать в ход, начинать
unfortunate – несчастный, неудачный
involve – вовлекать, впутывать
campaign - компания
represent - представлять
brand – сорт, качество
gingerly - осторожный
wreck – авария, крушение
injure – портить, повреждать
resemble – быть похожим
measure - мера
impact – столкновение, воздействие
charge – обвинять
assemble - собирать, монтировать
interior - внутренний
reduce - уменьшать, сокращать
attach – привязанный, прикрепленный
dummy – ложный, поддельный
cable – канат, трос
flash - вспышка
observe – наблюдать, замечать
strain - натяжение, напряжение
gauge - размер, измерительный прибор
brief – краткий, сжатый
Dummies Help Make Cars Safer
Number 32, his wife, and their four-year-old son sat stony silence, their heads, chests, and knees wired with sensitive electronic instruments, as they began their 30 mph, 600-foot ride toward a 200-ton concrete barrier. Seconds later their 1975 Mustang met the massive wall in a violent, one-half-second explosion. Unrestrained by seal belts, Number 32 and his family were launched into the windshield and "killed" instantly.
This drama of simulated death is staged almost daily in safety testing laboratories. It's all part of an effort to reduce injuries and save the lives of those of us unfortunate enough to be involved in a real-life accident.
The automaker's began this campaign to save us from ourselves over 40 years ago. To check a car for front end strength, for example, a driver simply strikes it into a brick wall. Sand bags were sometimes thrown inside to represent human drivers and passengers.
Engineers at another auto company tested the brand new all-steel tops of the days by driving a car with an army, tank on its roof and leading an elephant gingerly onto a platform mounted on the car top.
But about 20 years ago safety engineers decided that if they were going to build safer, not just stronger, cars they had to know, more about what happened in auto accidents than they could learn from just examining wrecked vehicles or standing elephants on the roof. So, to study how people were being injured and killed, scientific crash methods were designed to represent as closely as possible the actual events experienced during real accidents.
The movements of human occupants, for example, are simulated by specially developed anthropomorphic dummies whose weights, shapes, and body structures closely approximate those of the men, women and children they resemble.
In all of these simulated crash events, high speed motion picture cameras shoot 1000 to 3000 pictures every second and other aerospace type instruments attached to the dummies' chests, knees and heads measure and record impacts, displacements, trajectories and decelerations. "We then use this data', says the engineer in charge of GM's Safety
|Research and Development Laboratory, "to improve instrument panels, windshield glass, steering wheel assemblies and many other interior components so as to reduce the lumber of injuries that reel people suffer in real accidents".
Engineers form wires, leading from the acceleromotors, load cells and strain gauges attached to the car and dummies, into a foot thick cable which will carry signals to a million-dollar recording van parked halfway down the track. Final connections are made and the chief engineer, via two-way hand radio, signals "ready" to the technical
Suddenly hundreds of powerful lights flash on and two tons of automobile and its occupants move toward the wall where their brief ride ends with sounds of metal against concrete.
“I know this test appears very spectacular, complex, destructive and perhaps even wasteful", says the engineer, "but it is really the only way we can even attempt to observe and analyse, at one time, all the injury producing that we have, simulated individually during the small testing".
1. Phonetic drill:
a) hundred, lived, developed. crowded, carried;
b) cities, pollutes, upsets, stations, winds, distances, substances, forests, species, animals, rivers, lakes, crises, generation, plants;
c) chemical, atmosphere, nature, especially.
2. Reading drill:
harmony, environment, situation, different, industry, dangerous, ton, harmful, disappearance, oxygen, rare, forever, distribution, ozone, layer, interaction, ecological, earth.
3. Study the words:
environment – окружающая среда
to develop - развивать
to be crowded – быть перенаселенным
dangerous – опасный
waste - отходы, шлаки
to carry - переносить
to pollute - загрязнять
harmful - вредный
substance - вещество
to suffer - страдать
to destruction - разрушать
layer - слой
interaction - вмешательство
generation - поколение
4. Read the text and translate it.
The Problems of Ecology
About two hundred years ago man lived in greater harmony with his environment because industry was not much developed. Today the situation is quite different.
Many parts of the world are crowded. People live in big cities and much of our waste, especially waste from factories, electric power stations, the chemical industry and heavy industry are very dangerous. Much of this dangerous waste goes into the air and is carried by winds for great distances.
Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about one million ton of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up.
The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of ozone layer is the result of man's careless interaction with nature, a sign of ecological crises.
The Earth is our home. He must take care of it, for ourselves and the next generations. This means keeping our environment clean.
3. Answer the questions to the text:
1. Why did man live in greater harmony with his environment?
2. What is the situation today?
3. What can you say about the pollution of the atmosphere?
4. Why is the oxygen balance upset?
5. What is a sign of ecological crises?
6. Why must we take care of our environment?
1. Study the word list:
pollution - загрязнение
cram – набивать, наполнять
expansion – расширение
befoul -пачкать, осквернять
bitterly – горько, резко
estimate – ценить, оценивать
waste – отход, отброс
disease - болезнь
contaminate – осквернять, заражать
suffer - страдать
extent - пространство
sewerage – система канализации
grossly – тяжело, плотно
damage - повреждение
emission – выделение, излучение
install – помещать, устраивать
handicap – помеха, правонарушение
offender – преступник, правонарушитель
assess - штрафовать
accurately – точно, тщательно
appreciate - ценить
accomplish – исполнять, завершать
Few, if any countries are as heavily polluted as Japan, where 110 million people - about half as many as live in the United States - are crammed into an aria about the
size of the State of Montana.
Postwar economic expansion has so befouled the country that the Japanese - many of whom expect to be wearing gas masks most of the time within 10 to 15 years - bitterly joke that GMP (Gross National Progress) stands for "Gross National Pollution".
According to one estimate waste generated per square mile in Japan is 10 times larger than in the US.
Government statistics disclose that nearly 100 persons have died and more than 6000 have become ill of "pollution related” diseases since an official count began in December, 1969. Some experts believe the real toll is at least twice as high.
Schoolchildren at play have been knocked out by smog. Rivers are unswimmable, and the best beaches are contaminated. Half the commercial fishing ground in the seas around Japan have been ruined by industrial waters. Tokyo police use an oxygen-inhaler after one hour of directing traffic.
Deepening trouble. The problem of filthy waters, dirty air and poisoned land is getting steadily worse.
Already, authorities contend the mortality rate in heavily polluted areas is almost three times the normal rate.
The Prime Minister's office estimates that about 30 million people - more then one third of the urban population - have suffered from some form of pollution in the past five years.
Experts complain that industry, to a large extent, has ignored the damage it is doing, and that government at most levels has been indifferent.
They point out that sewerage end waste-disposal systems in Japan are grossly inadequate. Motor vehicles have multiplied 10 times in 10 years, and now number over 21\
million - 2.3 million in Tokyo alone. Yet devices to control engine emissions are installed only on automobiles for export.
Government studies show that 70 per cent of Japanese companies fail to process any of their wastes, which are piling up at the rate of 58 million tons a year. Many factories are handicapped by old equipment and out-of-date technology. Chief offenders are producers of chemicals, electric power, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals, paper and steel.
“Alarming Speed". The damage to the environment, while easy to see, is impassible to assess accurately. Pollution was ignored in Japan for years. Even today, the dangers are not fully appreciated. Says Yomiuri Shimbun, one of the country's leading newspapers:
"Health hazards and environmental destruction caused by pollution have been spreading with alarming speed throughout the country. Yet leaders of industrial organizations still hold the view that pollution is a “necessary evil” and that economic progress cannot be accomplished without it."
The country was shocked some years ago when a Cabinet minister suggested that the Japanese “must have the spirit to eat contaminated rice".
Many vaguely worded antipollution bills passed by Parliament have had little effect.
2. Answer the questions:
1. What is the main reason of great pollution in Japan?
2. What does pollution result in?
3. Does Japanese government take measures to stop great pollution?
3. Express your opinion on the problem: Is the environmental pollution a part of technological progress?
4. Pick out the sentences which are the most interesting to you.
5. Arrange the sentences in chronological order according to the text:
1. Yet devices to control engine emissions are installed only on automobiles for export.
2. Some exports believe the real toll is at least twice as high.
3. The damage to the environment, while easy to see, is impossible to assess accurately.
4. According to one estimate waste generated per square mile in Japan is 10 times larger than in the US.
6. Half the commercial finishing grounds in the seas around Japan have been ruined by industrial waters.
7. Finish the sentences:
1. Government statistics disclose that nearly 100 persons have died and …
2. Schoolchildren at play have been ...
3. The problem of filthy waters ...
4. Exports complain that industry, to a large extent … .
5. Yet leaders of industrial organizations still hold … .