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Find infinitive in the function of attribute in the following sentences. Translate the sentences.

Note!Инфинитив в функции определения к существительному нужно переводить придаточным определительным предложением с союзом «который» и часто с оттенком долженствования (т.е. словами «нужно», «необходимо»)

1) The most important method for casting to be produced is sand casting.

2) A very important method to be used in foundry is sand casting.

3) Casting is the most economical process for complicated shapes to be produced in large quantity.

4) Metals to be used for sand casting are grey cast iron, white cast iron, malleable cast iron, steel alloys, copper alloys and other non-ferrous alloys.

5) The metals to contain iron are known as ferrous metals.


Read Text A. Answer the following questions. Translate the text.

a) Что нового вы узнали об истории литья?

b) Из какого материала изготавливались раньше литейные формы?

c) Какой литейный метод является наиболее важным?

d) Какой металл является самым экономичным для литья?


Text A

Casting is the process of making metal objects. Foundry practice has been known for many centuries. The first melting and casting of metal is mentioned about 6000 years ago. Copper was the first metal to be cast. Many of the earliest molds were made of stone and were, therefore, of simple shape. The people produced simple agricultural instruments and similar castings.

The foundry industry has developed greatly since that time. As a result of new developments in metals and in casting processes, casting still takes an important place among manufacturing processes. For example, some parts that were earlier forged (ковать), are now cast since casting is more economical and the quality of cast components is as that of the forged ones.

Numerous methods have been developed for producing metal castings. At present the most important method of producing castings is sand casting. The sand casting may be divided into four divisions depending upon the metals, which are cast: grey cast iron, steel, malleable cast iron and nonferrous metals.

Iron-founding was one of the earliest methods of working iron into the required shape. It is the cheapest. The principal metals used for castings are iron and steel, brass and copper alloys, aluminium and magnesium alloys.


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