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КАТЕГОРИИ:






A revolution in physical science – electronics




Before the discovery of the electron our knowledge of nature of matter had advanced beyond the conjectures of the Ancient Greeks. There was very strong evidence that all substances were made up of a limited variety of different kinds of “ultimate” particles called atoms. The word “atom” means “uncuttable” and it was generally accepted that it was possible to cut up a piece of pure gold into smaller bits, the process would end with a large number of very small, identical, gold atoms which could be cut no further. A great deal was known about the properties of substances like gold, copper and iron, yet no one could explain the differences between gold, copper and iron atoms. The efforts of the alchemists, for example, to change iron, copper or tin into gold simply underlined their ignorance of atomic structure. Today one can break up atoms into smaller bits and change some kinds of atoms into other kinds because we know something of how atoms are made. Modem atomic theory began with Thomson’s discoveries in the Cavendish Laboratory and caused a revolution in physics which in turn transformed the whole of science.

The searchlight, which Thomson threw on the hidden world of the atom, paved the way for many exciting new discoveries at the Cavendish laboratory and by physicists all over the world.

The revolution in pure science rapidly bore fruit in many fields of applied science and technology, especially in the applied science of electronics. The vacuum techniques for the study of free electrons led directly to the radio valve, and the Crooke’s tube aroused Thomson’s interest in cathode rays was the father of the television receiver. The new electronics combined with the other techniques of the telegraph and telephone produced a revolution in communications. If the discovery of electron had led only to radio and television it would still represent a decisive factor in the shaping of our civilizationbut it led to still more discoveries of Russian and foreign scientists.

Electronics produced radar. It led to nucleonics and hence to the exploration of the immense store of energy locked in the atom. It gave birth to the electronic computer. By the middle of the twentieth century a rapidly expanding, world-wide electronics industry was pouring out millions of parts of radio and television receivers and instruments for every branch of science and technologyinstruments capable of unprecedented speed and sensitivity.

Electronic devices give immense extension to cur senses. One car now examines structures too small to be visible in even the most powerful optical microscope and receive signals from radio stars which started their long journey through space ages before there was any life on our planet. Electronics combined with rocketry has enabled scientists to take close-up pictures of the moon and made it possible for men to land on it. Electronics applied to medicine has already produced significant advances in diagnosis and treatment.

Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What theory was generally accepted before Thomson’s discovery?

2. What did Thomson’s discovery lead to?

3. What gave birth to the electronic computer?

4. What did electronic devices enable scientists to achieve?

Задание 4. Напишите данные предложения в пассивном залоге:

1. Today one can break up atoms into smaller bits.

2. The new electronics combined with the other techniques of the telegraph and telephone produced a revolution in communications.

3. Electronics produced radar.

4. One can now examine structures too small to be visible in even the most powerful optical microscope.

Задание 5. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму:

1. Modem atomic theory (to begin) with Thomson’s discoveries in the Cavendish Laboratory and (to cause) a revolution in physics which, in turn (to transform) the whole of science.

2. If the discovery of electron (to lead) only to radio and television it would still represent a decisive factor in the shaping of our civilization.

3. It (to give) birth to the electronic computer.

4. By the middle of the twentieth century a rapidly expanding, world-wide electronics industry (to pour) out millions of parts of radio and television receivers and instruments for every branch of science and technologyinstruments capable of unprecedented speed and sensitivity.

5. Electronics combined with rocketry (to enable) scientists to take close-up pictures of the moon and (to make) it possible for men to land on it.

[Литература: 1-4]




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