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Ways of expressing parts of the sentence


§ 32. Any part of the sentence may be expressed in four ways, that is, by a single word-form or a word-form preceded by a formal word, by a phrase, by a predicative complex, or by a clause. The only exception is the verbal predicate which can be neither a predicative complex nor a clause.



§ 33. A word-form is any form of the grammatical paradigm of the word. Girl, girls, girl’s, girls'; to write, writes, wrote, is writing, has been written, will have been writing, etc.; pale, paler; brilliant, more brilliant, most brilliant are all word-forms.

As seen from the above a word-form may contain either one component or more than one. One-component word-forms are various synthetic forms of the word, while multi-component word-forms are analytical forms of the word which are composed of оne or more auxiliary components and one notional component. The auxiliary components may be verbs (be, have, do, shall, will), adverbs (more, most), particles (to).



In grammar we usually deal with word-forms, not words, though it is customary to make use of the term

“word” in the sense of “word-form” as well. So in the following chapters both these terms will be used in

the sense of “word-form”, “word-form” being more exact, “word” having the advantage of being shorter.


§ 34. A phrase is a group of two or more notional words functioning as a whole. Besides notional words a phrase may contain one or more formal words. Compare: to see her - to look at her.

Depending on the relation between its components, phrases may be divided into two kinds: phrases which are divisible both syntactically and semantically, and phrases which are indivisible either syntactically or semantically, or both.

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