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The adverbial of condition

§ 106. The identifying questions are in what case? or on what condition? The adverbial of condition is generally expressed by a noun or a pronoun, or by a prepositional phrase (nominal or sometimes gerundial) with the prepositions but for, except for, without.

But for you I wouldn’t be here at all.

Except for the sound of his breathing I wouldn’t have known he was there.

Without faith there can be no cure.


This adverbial is sometimes expressed by a participle or an adjective with the conjunctions if or unless.


Jane won’t sing unless asked to.

We’ll come earlier if necessary.


Less frequently it is an infinitive or a participle.


I would have done better to have followed my first thought.

Skilfully managed, conversation with him might prove amusing.

The adverbial of concession

§ 107. This adverbial expresses some idea that contradicts what is stated in the modified part of the sentence. Thus in its meaning it is opposite to the adverbial of reason. The identifying question is in spite of what?

The adverbial of concession is expressed by a prepositional phrase introduced by in spite of, despite, for all, with all and phrases introduced by the conjunction though.

In spite of his anger John listened to me attentively.

Cleary, for all his reputation, was already out of date.

With all his faults, I like him.

Though a bad painter, he had a delicate feeling for art.



The conjunction if introduces concessive adverbials in cases like the following:


Your remark is witty, if rather cruel (...хотя и несколько жестокое).

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