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КАТЕГОРИИ:






Electronics and power engineering




In the subfield of electronics, electrical engineers design and test electrical networks (more commonly known as circuits) that take advantage of electromagnetic properties of electrical components or elements (such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, transistors, diodes, semiconductors) to achieve the desired functionality.

Before the invention of the integrated circuit, electronic circuits were constructed purely from discrete components. These circuits consumed much space and electrical power, were more prone to failure, and were limited in speed.

The integrated circuit packs large numbers of electrical components, mainly transistors, into a small space, contributing to the ubiquitous use of electronic devices today.

In designing an integrated circuit, electrical engineers first construct circuit schematics (drawings) that specify electrical components and describe interconnections among the electrical components. When the schematics are deemed good, electrical engineers convert the schematics into actual layouts, which literally map out layers of various conductor and semiconductor materials (such as metal and polysilicon) on a scale of micrometers and nanometers. The conversion from schematics to layouts can be done by computer programs, although very often human fine-tuning is desirable to decrease space and power consumption.

Software simulation is essential in the design process of electronic circuits, especially integrated circuits. Models of semiconductor materials and electrical components are constructed by fabrication plants (fabs) and manufacturers of electrical components for the purpose of simulation.

The subfield of power engineering deals not only with electricity generation, electric power transmission and electricity distribution but also with electrical circuits and materials (e.g. insulators) that need to withstand high voltages and currents.

Another subfield is accurate measurement of electrical properties. Measuring an electrical circuit inevitably changes the voltages and currents in it. The objective is to minimize the influence of the measuring circuit or even compensate for it. The field also includes sensors that use electrical properties of a material, or electromechanical means of measurement. Examples of the former are piezoelectricity for measuring pressure and temperature-dependent resistors for measuring temperature. These sensors can be used in control engineering.

Задание 3. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский. Употребите глагол, выделенный курсивом, с нужным предлогом:

1. Многие ученые внесли вклад в развитие электроники.

2. Энергетика изучает передачу и распределение электроэнергии, электрические цепи и изоляторы.

3. Инженеры используют в своих целях микросхемы для экономии места.

4. Сила ветра преобразуется в электрическую энергию.

5. Они составили план строительства электростанции.

Задание 4. Задайте вопросы к следующим предложениям:

1. Before the invention of the integrated circuit, electronic circuits were constructed purely from discrete components.

2. The conversion from schematics to layouts can be done by computer programs, although very often human fine-tuning is desirable to decrease space and power consumption.

3. Measuring an electrical circuit inevitably changes the voltages and currents in it.

4. The objective is to minimize the influence of the measuring circuit or even compensate for it.

5. These sensors can be used in control engineering.

[Литература: 1-4]

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