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The State System of Russia
Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government. The Russian Federation consists of 89 constituent entities (republics, territories, regions, cities of federal significance, the autonomous region and autonomous areas, which have equal rights). The authorities of the constituent entities have the right to pass laws independently from the federal government. The laws and other normative legal acts of the subjects of the Russian Federation may not contradict federal laws. The President of the Russian Federation is the head of state. The President of the Russian Federation has the right to suspend the actions of acts of executive bodies of Russian Federation members if they contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws, or the international obligations of the Russian Federation.
State power in the Russian Federation is exercised on the basis of its separation into legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The Federal Assembly - the Parliament of Russia - is the supreme representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation. Executive power belongs to the central and local governments. Justice in the Russian Federation is administered by the courts of law only. Judicial power is effected by means of constitutional, civil, administrative, and criminal judicial proceedings.
The President is elected to office for a term of four years by the citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot. One and the same person cannot serve as President for more than two terms in succession. The President stops performing his duties ahead of time if he resigns, because of impeachment, or if he cannot continue to carry out his duties due to poor health. Elections of a new President are to take place within three months and in the meantime his duties are acted upon by the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation. The President of the Russian Federation:
- appoints, with the consent of the State Duma the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, chairs the meetings of the government, accepts the resignation of the government;
- nominates for approval by the State Duma the Chairman of the Central Bank;
- nominates judges to the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation, and the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation for appointment by the Federation Council;
- organizes and chairs the Security Council of Russia;
- is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and appoints and dismisses the supreme commanders of the Armed Forces;
- appoints diplomatic representatives for approval by the Parliament. He confers supreme military and supreme special titles and honorary titles of the state;
- has the right to show mercy and to decide on issues of citizenship;
- has the right to introduce the state of emergency throughout the country or in a particular territory within the Russian Federation;
- dissolves the State Duma;
- announces elections ahead of time and passes the decision to conduct a referendum on federal issues, etc.
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