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C. COMPOSITIONAL PATTERNS OF SYNTACTICAL ARRANGEMENT




The structural syntactical aspect is sometimes regarded as the crucial issue in stylistic analysis, although the peculiarities of syntactical ar­rangement are not so conspicuous as the lexical and phraseological properties of the utterance. Syntax is figuratively called the "sinews of style".

Structural syntactical stylistic d e v i с е s are in special relations with the intonation involved. Prof. Peshkovsky points out that there is an interdependence between the intonation and syntactical properties of the sentence, which may be worded in the fol­lowing manner: the jnore explicitly the^structural syntactical relations are expressed, the weaker will be the intonation-pattern of the utterance (tcTcomplete disappearance) and vice-versa, the stronger the~ iritonalion, the weaker grow the evident syntactical relations (also to complete

disappearance) l. This can be illustrated by means of the following two nairs of sentences: 'Only after dinner did I make up my mind to go there' and '/ made up my mind to go there only after dinner.1 'It was in Bucharest that the Xth International Congress of Linguists took place' and'The Xth International Congress of Linguists took place in Bucharest.'

The second sentences in these pairs can be made emphatic only by intonffion]~"tTie~TrrsTsentences are made emphatic bjrmeari^ortlie^ syh-

-ffiffifi^^ I...' and 'It was... that"?..'

——The""~problem of syntactical stylistic devices appears to be closely linked not only with what makes an utterance more emphatic but also wjth the more general problem of predication. As is known, the English affirmative sentence is regarded as neutral if it maintains the regular wpFd:6fder,^i.e. subject—predicate—object (or other secondary mem-БёпГ of the "sentence, as they are called). Any other order of the parts of the sentence may also carry the necessary information, but the impact on the reader will be different. Even a slight change in the word-order of a sentence or in the order of the sentences in a more complicated syn­tactical unit will inevitably cause a definite modification of the mean­ing of the whole. An almost imperceptible rhythmical design intro­duced into a prose sentence, or a sudden break in the sequence of the parts of the sentence, or any other change^will add something to the vol­ume of information contained in the original sentence.

Unlike the syntactical expressive means of the language, which are naturally used in discourse in a straight-forward natural manner, syn­tactical stylistic de^/1cgs_jr<e_g^^ve4 as elaborate designs aimea al having, ja.Hefiii^

"any SD is meant to be understood as a device and is calculated to pro­duce a desired stylistic effect.

When viewing the stylistic functions of different syntactical designs we must first of all take into consideration two aspects:

1. The juxtaposition of different parts of the utterance.

2. The way the parts are connected with each other. In addition to these two large groups of EMs.and SDs two other groups may be distinguished:

3. Those based on the peculiar use of colloquial constructions.

4. Those based on the stylistic use of-structural meaning.




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