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Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы





Обратите внимание на различные значения ing-формы:

В следующих предложениях reading — причастие:

My brother is reading a book. In the library you can see many people reading books-Reading his newspaper, the old man fell asleep.

В следующих предложениях reading — герундий:

Reading a good book gives me a lot of pleasure. It is no use reading these notes. I like reading a good book. I am thinking of reading a new A. Christie book. I remember reading a very clever article on mar­ket economy.

Сравните эти два предложения:

My brother is reading the latest story by R. Brad­bury, причастие

My dream is reading the latest story by R. Brad­bury, герундий

Герундий и отглагольное существительное 347

Упражнение 423

Расположите по порядку:

a) предложения, в которых ing-форма является причастием;

b) предложения, в которых ing-форма является герундием.

1. a) When we entered the classroom, we saw ma-

ny students writing at the desks.

b) Do you mind my writing with your pen?

c) He was writing a letter when I entered the room.

2. a) We all listened with great interest to the

speaker criticizing the new book.

b) Criticizing the work of our sports club, he said that it was not satisfactory.

c) They were criticizing the government for its failure to limit air pollution at that moment.

d) I have no objection to your criticizing me.

3. Lydia could retell the English story she had
read without looking into the book. 4. Everybody ran
to meet the people returning from the city. 5. They
went home quickly, protecting themselves from the
rain by walking under the trees. 6. In this factory
much attention is paid to protecting the health of
the workers. 7. He stopped writing and looked
around. 8. In this picture you can see a young man
giving flowers to a girl. 9. Playing volleyball is
a popular sport for young people. 10. She left the
room without saying a word. 11. We had the pleas­
ure of seeing the performance. 12. John likes study­
ing history. 13. Never jump off a moving train. 14. Read­
ing books out of doors is his favourite way of spend­
ing the summer holidays, but he likes swimming and
going on excursions as well. 15. Running water is
always better than standing water. 16. The remain­
ing cakes were given to the children. 17. The cakes,


Герундий и отглагольное существительное 349


remaining from the evening, were given to the chil­dren. 18. You can learn what the new words mean by looking them up in the dictionary. 19. Before going to meet his friend, he went home to change his clothes. 20. They went out to meet the returning women. 21. Returning home after a good holiday is always pleasant. 22. Returning home after a good holiday, he looked the picture of health.

Упражнение 424

Расположите по порядку:

a) предложения, в которых ing-форма является причастием;

b) предложения, в которых ing-форма является герундием.

1. Не was looking at the plane flying overhead. 2. Wishing to learn to skate, she bought herself a pair of skates. 3. Just imagine his coming first in the race! 4. The children were tired of running. 5. Being frightened by the dog, the cat climbed a high fence. 6. It is no use going there now. 7. Com­ing out of the wood, the travellers saw a ruined cas­tle in the distance. 8. My greatest pleasure is trav­elling. 9. Growing tomatoes need a lot of sunshine. 10. Growing corn on his desert island, Robinson Cru­soe hoped to eat bread one day. 11. Growing roses takes a lot of care and attention. 12. Having pre­pared all the necessary equipment, they began the experiment. 13. Mary will stop for a few days at the seaside before going back home. 14. While translat­ing the text, I looked up many words in the diction­ary. 15. I usualy help mother by washing the dishes and doing the rooms. 16. Entering the room, I saw my friends smiling at me. 17. Instead of phoning his friend, he went to see him. 18. The boys continued

playing football. 19. Watching the playing kittens was great fun for the children.


Сравните герундий и отглагольное существительное:
Reading a good book gives me a lot of pleasure. герундий
The reading of a good book gives me a lot of pleasure. отглагольное существи- тельное

Упражнение 425

Расположите по порядку:

a) предложения, в которых ing-форма является герундием;

b) предложения, в которых ing-форма является отглагольным существительным.

1. The singing of those beautiful folk songs im­pressed me greatly. 2. Your having written is really no excuse for your not coming on the day fixed. 3. Such doings can hardly be explained. 4. The mo­tor was carefully examined before starting. 5. I am very pleased to meet you after hearing so much about you. 6. Your hair wants cutting. 7. I shall look for­ward to seeing you again. 8. It was no use talking about it any longer. 9. Sleeping is necessary. 10. We felt so disappointed at your having missed nearly half the programme. 11. The building of this house will cost much money. 12. Are you dressed for go­ing out? 13. I hate the idea of doing it once more.

14. Then came a general lighting of pipes and cigars.

15. But you don't mind being asked to help us, do you? 16. The forest resounded with the hooting of owls and the howling of wolves. 17. She blamed her­self for having been a dull companion.


Герупдий и отглагольное существительное 351


Упражнение 426

Расположите по порядку:

a) предложения, в которых ing-форма является причастием;

b) предложения, в которых ing-форма является герундием;

c) предложения, в которых ing-форма является отглагольным существительным.

1. The driving wheel of the machine is broken.

2. Driving in a motor car, we passed many villages.

3. We have every chance of passing our examinations well. 4. Having been knocked down by a passing car, the poor man was at once taken to hospital. 5. You don't know what you miss, not having the desire to listen to good music. 6. These happenings are re­markable. 7. Travelling is a pleasant way of improv­ing one's education. 8. Every trust arranges for the marketing of its products. 9. I was told of a great friendship existing between the two captains. 10. It is no use crying over spilt milk. 11. Asking him for help is useless. 12. Happily we escaped being delayed on our way. 13. There are many discoveries being made all over the world. 14. Seeing this man, I rec­ollected perfectly having met him many years before.

Упражнение 427

Расположите по порядку:

a) предложения, в которых ing-форма является причастием;

b) предложения, в которых ing-форма является герундием;

c) предложения, в которых ing-форма является отглагольным существительным.

1. Sitting by her sleeping child, the worried mother at last began to realize by its peaceful breath-

ing that all danger was over. 2. I stopped knocking at the door and, sitting down at the top of the stairs, began waiting for my father to come. 3. With a sudden tightening of the muscles he became aware of a figure walking noiselessly beside him. 4. She praised herself for having come. 5. Having stopped crying, the child quieted down to hard thinking. 6. The old clock kept ticking on the mantelpiece, as if counting the seconds left before the coming of day­light. 7. Remembering that time was like going back to his childhood and reliving those happy days. 8. Look­ing back upon that time, he realized how happy he had been then. 9. Tom lived there like a paying guest, at­tracting very little attention of the others.

Упражнение 428

Расположите по порядку:

a) предложения, в которых ing-форма является причастием;

b) предложения, в которых ing-форма является герундием;

c) предложения, в которых ing-форма является отглагольным существительным.

1. We sat by the riverside listening to the run­ning of the water. 2. The cleaning of the room was done by the girls. 3. Working in the garden is very good for the health of people. 4. Going home from the theatre, they were discussing the play they had seen. 5. You should think before speaking. 6. After finding the new word in the dictionary, I wrote it down and went on reading. 7. He spent much time on the copying of his literature lectures. 8. What do you mean by saying that? 9. The students found the reading of English newspapers rather difficult at first. 10. Instead of going home after school, the girls went for a walk. 11. Chalk is used for writing on the blackboard.

Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) 353


glish," said my mother to me. — My mother wanted ... 9. "Bring me some water from the river, chil­dren," said our grandmother. — Our grandmother wanted ... 10. "Come to my birthday party," said Kate to her classmates. — Kate wanted ... 11. The biology teacher said to us: "Collect some insects in summer." — The biology teacher wanted ... 12. "Don't eat ice cream before dinner," said our mother to us. Our mother did not want ...


I want him to help me. I'd like him to help me.

Упражнение 429

Закончите предложения, употребляя сложное до­полнение.

E.g."Bring me a book," said my brother to me.

My brother wanted me to bringhim a book.

1. The teacher said to the pupils: "Learn the rule." — The teacher wanted ... 2. "Be careful, or else you will spill the milk," said my mother to me. — My mother did not want ... 3. "My daughter will go to a ballet school," said the woman. — The woman wanted ... 4. The man said: "My son will study math­ematics." — The man wanted ... 5. "Oh, father, buy me this toy, please," said the little boy. — The little boy wanted ... 6. "Wait for me after school," said Ann to me. — Ann wanted ... 7. "Fix the shelf in Mir kitchon," my father said to me. — My father wniilnl ... K. "It. will be very good if you study En-

Упражнение 430

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя сложное дополнение.

1. Я хочу, чтобы все дети смеялись. 2. Я хочу, чтобы все это прочитали. 3. Мне хотелось бы, что­бы доктор посмотрел его. 4. Дети хотели, чтобы я рассказал им сказку. 5. Я не хочу, чтобы она зна­ла об этом. 6. Он хотел, чтобы его друг пошел с ним. 7. Мой брат хочет, чтобы я изучала испан­ский язык. 8. Я бы хотел, чтобы мои ученики хо­рошо знали английский язык. 9. Я не хочу, что­бы ты получил плохую оценку. 10. Мне бы не хо­телось, чтобы они опоздали. 11. Я не хотела, что­бы вы меня ждали. 12. Она бы хотела, чтобы ее брат получил первый приз. 13. Я хочу, чтобы вы прочли эту книгу. 14. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы вы приехали к нам. 15. Она хотела, чтобы ее сын хо­рошо окончил школу. 16. Им бы хотелось, чтобы мы проиграли игру. 17. Она не хотела, чтобы я уехал в Москву. 18. Я бы не хотел, чтобы вы по­теряли мою книгу. 19. Папа хочет, чтобы я была пианисткой. 20. Мы хотим, чтобы этот артист при­ехал к нам в школу. 21. Вам бы хотелось, чтобы я рассказал вам эту историю? 22. Хотите, я дам вам мой словарь?

12 Ю. Голицынский


Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) 355


I expect him to come.

I know him to be a good pupil.

Упражнение 431

Перепишите следующие предложения, употреб­ляя сложное дополнение вместо придаточных допол­нительных предложений.

E.g.I expect that she will sendme a letter. I expect her to sendme a letter. I know that he isa great scientist. I know him tobe a great scientist.

1. I know that my friend is a just man. 2. I ex­pect that he will understand your problem and help you to solve it. 3. I expected that she would behave quite differently. 4. I did not expect that my broth­er would forget to send her flowers. 5. He knows that my mother is a very kind woman. 6. She expected that her brother would bring her the book. 7. I know that your uncle is an excellent mathematician. 8. People expect that the 21st century will bring peace on the Earth.

Упражнение 432

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя сложное дополнение.

1. Я рассчитываю, что письмо придет завтра. 2. Он рассчитывал, что учитель похвалит его. 3. Она не рассчитывала, что они вернутся так поздно. 4. Я знаю, что она талантливая певица. 5. Я знала, что он великий ученый. 6. Мы не рассчитывали, что вы так много сделаете. 7. Учитель рассчиты­вал, что ученики поймут правило. 8. Я не ожидал, что он напишет такие прекрасные стихи. 9. Она

знала, что он очень добрый человек. 10. Все зна­ли, что она прогрессивный ученый. 11. Я знаю, что твоя сестра — очень способная студентка. 12. Все знают, что Байрон — великий поэт. 13. Я не ожидал, что это случится так скоро. 14. Мы рассчитываем, что вы нам поможете. 15. Он ожи­дал, что министр ответит сразу. 16. Мы рассчи­тывали, что погода изменится.

I like her to sing. I hate her to cry.

Упражнение 433

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя сложное дополнение.

1. Я люблю, когда дети смеются. 2. Она не лю­бит, когда я с ней спорю. 3. Она не любила, чтобы мы приходили поздно. 4. Он терпеть не может, когда я опаздываю. 5. Наш учитель любит, когда мы задаем вопросы. 6. Я ненавижу, когда ты за­бываешь свои обязанности. 7. Бабушка любит, когда Лена играет на рояле. 8. Папа любит, когда я говорю по-английски. 9. Мой дедушка не любил, когда дети разговаривали за столом. 10. Он тер­петь не мог, когда мы ломали игрушки. 11. Он любил, когда мы играли в тихие игры.

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