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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

Ценовые и неценовые факторы

Характеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы

КАТЕГОРИИ:






ТО HAVE ТО— ТО BE TO




Необходимость

ТО HAVE TO— вынужденная необходимость

ТО BE TO1 — необходимость по договоренности, плану или приказу

I have to go there. — I had to go there.

должен (вынужден) пришлось

I am to go there. — I was to go there.

должен, предстоит, предстояло
(договорились, или
такое расписание)

Упражнение 510

Переведите на русский язык.

1. I was to wait for her at the railway station.

2. We were to go to the cinema that afternoon.

3. We were to get there before the others. 4. He was to tell her where to find us. 5. She was to graduate that year. 6. She was to wear that dress at the grad­uation party. 7. He is to come here at five o'clock. 8. The train was to leave at 5 am. 9. They were to start on Monday. 10. He was to telephone the mo­ment she was out of danger. 11. Roses were to be planted round the pond. 12. There was to be a di­scussion later on.

1 TO BE может употребляться как модальный глагол толь­ко в двух временах: Present Simple и Past Simple.


Упражнение 511

Перефразируйте следующие предложения, упо­требляя модальный глагол to be to.

• E.g. 1) The lecture is supposed to begin at eight. The lecture is to beginat eight.

2) I expect her to come and help. She is to come and help.

3) It was planned that we should wait for them at the door.

We were to waitfor them at the door.

4) It was arranged that he should meet her at
the station.

He was to meether at the station.

5) Who will take care of the children?
Who is to takecare of the children?

1. What am I supposed to do if they come too early? 2. It was arranged that the youngest children would play on the beach. 3. We expect you to show the place to her. 4. I am expected to leave tomorrow at the latest. 5. Where am I supposed to be taken? 6. This is Dora. It is arranged that she will share the room with you. 7. And who will do the cooking? 8. It is expected that two more apartment houses will be built here. 9. It was arranged that the cup final would be played that afternoon. 10. Who will meet you at the station?

Упражнение 512

Вставьте модальные глаголы to have to или to be to.

1. Where ... the lecture to take place? — I sup­pose in the assembly hall. 2. So, our plan is as fol­lows: I ... to go to the library and bring.the books.


414 ГРАММАТИКА. СБОРНИК УПРАЖНЕНИЙ


Модальные глаголы



 


You ... to look through all the material here. Later we ... to work together. 3. "You ... to do it alone, without anybody's help," she said sternly. 4. I ... to help my friends with this work now, so I cannot go with you. 5. It was raining hard and we ... to wait until it stopped raining. 6. I ... to ask him about it tomorrow, as today he has already gone. 7. Why didn't you tell me that I ... to buy the books? 8. Ac­cording to the order of the schoolmistress all the pupils ... to return the library books before the twenty-third of May. 9. As we had agreed before, we ... to meet at two o'clock to go to the stadium together. But Mike did not come. I waited for an­other half hour, but then I ... to leave as I was afraid to be late. 10. The meeting ... to begin at five o'clock. Don't be late.

Упражнение 513

Вставьте модальные глаголы to have to или to be to.

1. She ... to send a telegram because it was too late to send a letter. 2. They decided that she ... to send them a telegram every tenth day. 3. You ... to learn all the new words for the next lesson. 4. Do you know this man? He ... to be our new teacher of history. 5. Who ... to go to the library to get the new books? — I was, but I couldn't because I ... to finish some work at the language laboratory. 6. It is raining. You ... to put on your raincoat. 7. "The pa­tient ... to stay in bed for a few days," ordered the doctor. 8. The child had stomach trouble and ... to take castor oil. 9. I told her she ... to open the win­dow for a while every day. 10. The agreement was that if Johnny White could not repay the money he had borrowed, then Luke Flint ... to have the right


to sell the land. 11.If I don't ring up before six o'clock, then you ... to go to the concert hall alone and wait for me at the entrance. Is that clear? 12. The planters ... to gather their cotton at once, as they had been warned that heavy rains were ex­pected. 13.I ... to wear glasses as my eyesight is very weak. 14.Johnny White ... to borrow from Luke Flint at a high interest, for there was no one else in the district who lent money. 15."Cheating is a very nasty thing," said the teacher, "and we ... to get rid of it."

Упражнение 514

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя мо­дальные глаголы to have to или to be to.

1. Вам предстоит выучить это стихотворение к среде. 2. Мне задали выучить это стихотворение к среде. 3. Мне пришлось выучить это стихотворе­ние к среде. 4. Мне придется выучить это стихо­творение к среде. 5. Ему приходится учить это сти­хотворение сегодня, так как он не выучил его вче­ра. 6. Вам не придется учить это стихотворение. 7. Мне не пришлось учить это стихотворение. 8. Так как он выучил это стихотворение вчера, ему не нужно учить его теперь. 9. На этой неделе нам пред­стоит встретиться с выдающимся ученым. 10. Вы­хода не было, и ему пришлось заплатить штраф. 11.Мне было задано написать сочинение о твор­честве Пушкина, а для этого мне пришлось пере­читать некоторые из его произведений, которые я плохо помнил. 12. Мне придется посидеть дома эти дни. Врач говорит, что я не должен никуда выходить, пока температура не будет нормаль­ной. 13. Посидите здесь, пока он занят. Я думаю, вам не придется долго ждать. 14.Спектакль дол­жен был начаться в семь часов. 15.Мы должны


416 ГРАММАТИКА. СБОРНИК УПРАЖНЕНИЙ


Модальные глаголы


All


 


были отложить поездку, так как погода испорти­лась. 16. Если вы хотите хорошо овладеть языком, вы должны очень много читать. 17. По новому рас­писанию у нас будет пять уроков английского язы­ка в неделю. 18. Мы решили, что школьный ор­кестр должен играть на концерте. 19. Рано или по­здно вам придется пойти к врачу. 20. В будущем году мы должны начать изучение астрономии. 21. Чтобы разработать новую теорию, ученые долж­ны были провести бесчисленные опыты.


letter: I shall phone them. 9. She cannot buy bread. 10. She need not buy bread. 11. He could not stay there for the night. 12. He need not have stayed there for the night. 13. We could not do all this work. 14. We need not have done all this work. 15. She could not cook such a big dinner. 16. She need not have cooked such a big dinner. 17. They could not write the composition. 18. They need not have written the composition. 19. I could not go to the library. 20. I need not have gone to the li­brary.


 


NEED

NEED NOT — отсутствие необходимости (можно не...)

NEED ...? — надо...?

You need not do it. — можете не делать Need I do it? — надо?

Сравните:

Ты не можешь делать этого. — You cannot do it.

Ты можешь не делать этого. — You need not do it.

Обратите внимание:

You need not have done it. — могли и не делать

(а сделали)

Упражнение 515

Переведите на русский язык.

1. You cannot read so many books. 2. You need not read so many books. 3. Nick cannot go to school today. 4. Nick need not go to school today. 5. They cannot translate this article. 6. They need not trans­late this article. 7. My sister cannot write this let­ter: she is very busy. 8. My sister need not write this


Упражнение 516

Перефразируйте следующие предложения, упо­требляя модальный глагол need.

• E.g. 1) It is not necessary to go there. You need not go there. 2) It was not necessary to go there. You need not have gone there.

1. Why do you want to do it all today? 2. It was not necessary for mother to cook this enormous din­ner: we have brought all the food the children may want. 3. It is not necessary to take the 8 pm (train) to London. A later train will do as well. 4. There was no necessity for her to do it herself. 5. There is no reason for you to worry: he is as strong as a horse. 6. There is no need for you to be present. 7. Is it any use our going into all that now? 8. Why did you mention all these figures? The situation was clear as it was. 9. Why do you want to press the skirt? It is not creased at all. 10. It was not necessary for you to remind me about her birthday. I remember the date very well.


14 Ю. Голицынский


418 ГРАММАТИКА. СБОРНИК УПРАЖНЕНИЙ


Модальные глаголы 419


 


Упражнение 517

Переведите на английский язык, употребляя мо­дальный глагол need.

1.Мне нужно тебе помогать? — Нет, спасибо, я все сделаю сам. 2. Вы можете не ходить туда. 3. Ему незачем беспокоиться о ней. 4. Я могу и не спрашивать его: он сам мне все расскажет. 5. Вам не обязательно звонить мне: я не забуду о своем обещании. 6. Надо ли ей покупать такую массу продуктов? 7. Она может не ходить в библиотеку: я дам ей книгу. 8. Вы могли и не брать зонт: я уверен, что дождя не будет. 9. У нас много време­ни в запасе, и нам незачем спешить. 10. Тебе не­зачем делать это сейчас. Ты можешь это сделать и завтра. 11.Она может и не помогать. Все уже сде­лано. 12. Ему незачем было продавать свое пиа­нино. 13. Вы могли и не кричать так на ребенка. 14. Они теперь не могут спать. — Им незачем было смотреть фильм ужасов.

Упражнение 518

Вставьте модальные глаголы may, must или need.

1.... Itake this book for a little while? — I am sorry, but I ... return it to the library at once.

2. Alec ... practise this sound specially, but the oth­er pupils ... not: they all pronounce it properly.

3. They ... come any time they like between ten and twelve in the morning, but they ... not come if they don't want to. 4. ... I go there right now? — Yes, you ... . 5. ... we hand in our compositions to­morrow? — No, you ... not, you ... hand them in after Sunday. 6. ... John really do this today? — No, he ... not, he ... do it tomorrow if he likes. 7. You ... not let this cup fall: it ... break. 8. ... I help you


with your coat? 9. You ... park your car only in your own space in the back of the building. 10. You ... have cancelled your trip to Canada. But you have always wanted to visit the largest French city Mon­treal and see your friend Nina.

Упражнение 519

Вставьте модальные глаголы can, may, must или need.

1. Peter ... return the book to the library. We all want to read it. 2. Why ... not you understand it? It is so easy. 3. ... we do the exercise at once? — Yes, you ... do it at once. 4. ... you pronounce this sound? 5. You ... not have bought this meat: we have ev­erything for dinner. 6.1... not go out today: it is too cold. 7. ... I take your pen? — Yes, please. 8. We ... not carry the bookcase upstairs: it is too heavy. 9. We ... not carry the bookcase upstairs ourselves: the workers will come and do it. 10. When ... you come to see us? — I ... come only on Sunday. 11.Shall I write a letter to him? — No, you ... not, it is not necessary. 12. ... you cut something with­out a knife? 13. Everything is clear and you ... not go into details now. 14. He ... not drink alcohol when he drives. 15. Don't worry! I ... change a light bulb. 16. By the end of the week I ... have finished writ­ing my book. 17. She ... not call the doctor again unless she feels worse.







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