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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

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Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы


Advertisements and Announcements

The function of advertisements and announcements, like that of brief news, is to inform the reader. There are two basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified.

In classified advertisements and announcements various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name.

As for non-classified advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all may be pointed out. The reader's attention is attracted by every possible means: typographical, graphical and stylistic: both lexical and syntactical. Here there is no call for brevity, as advertiser may buy as much space as he chooses.

The Editorial

Editorials are intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publicistic style.

The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Editorials comments on the political and other events of the day. Their purpose is to give the editor's opinion and interpretation of news published and suggest to the reader that it is the correct one. Like any publicistic writing, editorials appeal not only to the reader's mind but to his feelings as well.

Scientific Prose

The language of science is governed by the aim of the functional style of scientific prose, which is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between phenomena, etc. The language means used, therefore, tend to be objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality; there is a striving for the most generalized form of expression.

The first and most noticeable feature of the style in question is the logical sequence of utterances with clear indication of their interrelation and interdependence. The second and no less important one is the use of terms specific to a certain branch of science. The third characteristic feature is sentence pattern of three types: postulatory, argumentative, and formulative. The fourth observable feature is the use of quotations and references. The fifth one is the frequent use of foot-notes of digressive character. The impersonality of scientific writing can also be considered a typical feature of this style.

The characteristic features enumerated above do not cover all the peculiarities of scientific prose, but they are the most essential ones.

Official Documents

The style of official documents, like other styles, is not homogeneous and is represented by the following substyles or variants:

1. The language of business documents;

2. The language of legal documents;

3. That of diplomacy;

4. That of military documents.

This style has a definite communicative aim and accordingly has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the condition binding two parties in an undertaking.

In other words the aim of communication in this style of language is to reach agreement between two contracting parties. Even protest against violations of statutes, contracts, regulations, etc., can also be regarded as a form by which normal cooperation is sought on the basis of previously attained concordance.

As in the case with the above varieties this style also has some peculiarities:

1. The use of abbreviations, conventional symbols, contractions;

2. The use of words in their logical dictionary meaning;

3. Compositional patterns of the variants of this style.

4. Absence of any emotiveness.

Do the following exercise: Analyze the texts below and indicate the basic style-forming characteristics of each style and overlapping features:

(1) Speech of Viscount Simon of the House of Lords:


...The noble and learned Earl, Lord Jowitt, made a speech of much persuasiveness on the second reading raising this point, and today as is natural and proper, he has again presented with his usual skill, and I am sure with the greatest sincerity, many of the same considerations. I certainly do not take the view that the argument in this matter is all on the side. One could not possibly say that when one considers that there is considerable academic opinion at the present time in favour of this change, and in view of the fact that there are other countries under the British Flag where, I understand, there was a change in the law, to a greater or less degree, in the direction which the noble and learned Earl so earnestly recommends to the House. But just as I am very willing to accept the view that the case for resisting the noble Earl's Amendment is not overwhelming, so I do not think it reasonable that the view should be taken that the argument is practically and considerably the other way. The real truth is that, in framing statuary provisions about the law of defamation, we have to choose the sensible way between two principles, each of which is greatly to be admitted but both of which run into some conflict.

(2) An extract from the instruction manual:


The purpose of the carburettor is to provide a mixture of petrol and air for combustion in the engine. The mixture normally consists of one part (by weight) of petrol to fifteen parts of air, but this mixture varies quite considerably with temperature and engine speed. If there is a higher proportion of petrol the mixture is said to be «rich». A higher proportion of air gives a «weak» mixture.

Very simply, the carburettor consists of a tube through which the air is drawn, and a series of very small holes known as jets which break the petrol up into tiny droplets and pass it into the airstream in the form of a mist. The mixture of petrol mist and air is sucked along an inlet pipe (induction manifold) and then, by way of branches in the pipe, into each cylinder. A float chamber in the carburettor provides a small reserve of petrol for the jets and ensures an even supply.

The flow of air into the carburettor is controlled by a «butterfly throttle», which is a flap that can be opened and closed by operating the accelerator pedal in the car. Pressing the accelerator opens the throttle. This lets in more air which in turn sucks more petrol vapour through the main jet. The mixture passes into the cylinders making the engine run faster.


(3) A commercial letter:

September 16, 1998



126 Walnut Street

Philadelphia, PA 17503


Dear Sirs:

We are pleased to have received your order of September 15 and would like to welcome you as a new customer of Payton's Plastics.

Your order (No. 62997) for one dozen 4"x 5" sheets of 1/8" Lucite is being processed and will be ready for shipment on September 21. It will be delivered to your workshop by our own van, and payment will be c.o.d. (our policy for all orders under $100).

We are sure you will appreciate the clear finish and tensile strength of our entire line of plastics. Ms. Julie Methel, your sales representative, will call on you soon with a catalog and samples.


PAYTON'S PLASTICS, INC. Howard Roberts Customer relations

(4) An extract from a contract for sale/purchase of goods:

The Supplier guarantees that the goods are in all respects in accordance with the description, technical conditions and specifications of the order, that they are free from defects in material, design and workmanship and they conform to the Supplier's highest standards. Should the goods prove defective during the period of 12 months from the date of putting the machine, equipment or instruments into operation but not more than 18 months from the date of shipment, the Supplier undertakes to remedy the defects or to replace the faulty goods delivering them c.i.f. Baltic or Black Sea port at the Buyer's option, free of charge, or to refund the value of the goods paid by the Buyer.


(5) A newspaper article:

Ageism Factor

I blame Prince Philip, rather than the Queen, for the extraordinarily silly decision to support Jeffrey Archer's private bill which will allow a female child of the monarch to inherit the crown if she is born before her brothers. Although it may seem vaguely progressive and modern, even feminist, the truth is that it will do nothing for women's dismal role within the reproductive system which is the basis of all disadvantages.

If the monarchy is seen as a prize which anyone would want, then it might make some sort of sense to open it up further to women, but in those circumstances, the proposal emphasizes another injustice. If the former arrangement was sexist, the new one is unacceptably ageist. Why should one child be preferred to another just because it is older?

In the new spirit of the age, we have to accept that the younger our leaders or rulers, the better their image. That is why the Conservatives are now led by exciting, 36-year old William Hague. Some of us might be regretting the choice. Most, I think, would agree he made a mistake in allowing his spin-doctors to persuade him to adopt the accents of Wallace, the television entertainer of Wallace and Gromit fame, to promote his «young» image.

Even so, the superiority of youth is now unassailable. Before too long, when the monarchy falls vacant, it will go to the youngest child of either sex... are we soon to be told that the Queen will become such a law? We rather look to the monarchy to protect us from such nonsense. In point of fact, as I said, I suspect that Prince Philip is to blame for this latest bit of mischief. He and Jeffrey Archer are simply sending rude messages to their sons. Lord Archer is a Life Peer, so his opinions are not of the slightest interest on this or any other subject, but Prince Philip deserves a small rap on the knuckles. Some things are too important to joke about.

(The Daily Telegraph, March 2, 1998)

(6) A news item:

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