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DIFFERENCES IN THE ARTICULATION BASES OF THE ENGLISH AND RUSSJAN CONSONANTS AND THEIR PECULIARITIES
The differences in the articulation bases between the two languages-are "in the general tendencies their native speakers have, in the-way they move and hold their lips and the tongue both in speech and in silence, in the way they coordinate the work of the obstructor and1 vibrator mechanisms (lenis and fortis articulations), in the way they effect CV, VC and CC transitions (close and loose transitions)." *
The peculiarities of the articulation bases which give rise to the-differences in the system of consonants in English and in Russian are-the following:
(1) The English forelingual consonants are articulated with the'
(2) In the production of the Russian consonants the bulk of the-
* Vassituev V. A. English Phonetics: A Theoretical Course.—M., 1970.— P. 117.
In the production of the English forelingual consonants the tip of the tongue and the front edges are very tense. It results in the depression in the front part of the tongue, which enlarges the size of the front resonator and lowers the tone of the apical consonants. The English "soft" consonants are pronounced with the front secondary focus. They are /J\ 3, dfc, tf/ and the "soft" /1/. The English /J\ 5/ are short, the similar Russian consonants /ш':, ж':/ are long. The front secondary focus is formed by the middle part of the tongue which produces "secondary" articulation simultaneously with the primary focus, or primary articulation (see p. 87).
The Russian /п\ б', м', н', ф\ в', т\ д\ с', з', л', ч, р', к', г7 are also pronounced with the front secondary focus, but the middle of the tongue in their production is raised higher to the hard palate, than during the secondary articulation in the production of the English soft consonants.
Russian students often use the hard /ш, ж/ phonemes instead of the soft English/J, 5/. Palatalization is a phonemes feature in Russian (see below).
There is no opposition between palatalyzed—поп-palatalyzed consonants in English. The soft colouring of the English //, tf, <%, 1, 5/ is non-phonemic.
(3) The English /w/ and U] are pronounced with the back secon
The primary focus in the articulation of "dark" [I] is formed by the tip of the tongue pressed against the teethridge.
English voiceless plosives /p, k/ are aspirated, when followed by a stressed vowel and not preceded by /s/.
(4) The English voiceless iortis /p, t, k, f, s, J", tf/ are pronounced
The English voiced consonants /b, d, g, v, 3, z, 5, d§/ are not replaced by the corresponding voiceless sounds in word-final positions and before voiceless consonants, e.g. /'big ^eibl/.
(5) Consonant phonemes in English which have no counterparts
1. the bilabial, constrictive median sonorant /w/,
2. the dental (interdental) fricative consonants /Э, Ö/,
3. the voiced bicentral affricate /«13/,
4. the post-alveolar constrictive median sonorant /r/,
5. the backlingual, nasal sonorant /ri/,
6. the glottal fricative /h/.
Consonant phonemes in Russian which have no counterparts in English are the following:
1. the palatalized consonants /п', б', т*, д', к1, г1, м\ н', ф', в',
2. the voiceless unicentral affricate /ц/,
3. the rolled post alveolar sonorant /p/,
4. the backlingual fricative voiceless /x/.
The most common mistakes that may result from the differences in the articulation bases of the English and Russian languages are the following:
— dorsal articulation of the English forelingual apical /t, d/,
— the use of the Russian /x/ instead of the English glottal,
— mispronunciation of the English interdental /0, 5/: the use
— the use of the forelingual /n/ instead of the backlingual velar /n/,
— the use of the Russian dark /ш, ж/ instead of the soft English
— the use of the labio-dental /v, b/ instead of the bilabial /w/,
— absence of aspiration in /p, t, k/ when they occur initially,
— weak pronunciation of voiceless fortis /p, tF k, f, s, J", tf/,
— devoicing of voiced /b, d, g, v, 3, z, g, djj/ in the terminal
1. What are the mechanisms fort ha production of speech sounds?
2, What are the four main principles of consonant classification?
3, What are the differences in the second principle of consonant clas
1, Draw diagrams of_the four speech producing mechanisms.
2, Explain the work of the four mechanisms in the production of speech sounds,
*3. Explain the articulation of /p, t, k/ and /b, d, q/ from the viewpoint of the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation.
*4. Explain the articulation of /mt n, n/ from the point of view of the position of the soft palate.
*S. State the difference in the articulation of /b, v, f/ and the Russian /p/ from the point of view of the manner of noise production.
*6. Explain the articulation of /w, j, h/ from the viewpoint of the active organ of speech.
7. Draw figures of the position of the tip of the tongue in the articulation of the Russian hi, English /t, r/ and the Russian /p/7
*8. Explain the articulation of/s/ and lit from the viewpoint of noise producing foci.
9. Draw figures to show the position of the tongue in the production of front secondary and back secondary foci.
*10. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the aspiration of the" initial /p, t, k/.
И. Read these words. Observe the apical and cacuminal positions of the tip of the tongue in pronouncing the English it, r/ and the dorsal in pronouncing the Russian hi.
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