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General notion of prosody.

In linguistics, prosody (from Greek προσῳδία, prosōidía, [prosɔːdía], “song sung to music; pronunciation of syllable”) is the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech. Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; or other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or choice of vocabulary. English prosody, the study of the rhythms of language, is based on the patterns of stress found in everyday speech. Prosody functions:

-constitutive (structural) separate words, pronounced on the same level - normal communication is impossible/ “voice in machine” 1)integrative (связывание) 2) delimitative (расчленение) – the same words, but a different translation, because of the way we pronounce them.

- stylistic, each functional style and each function of speech has its own characteristics in melody, tempo, loudness, voice quality, pause. Official style (frequent use of the gradually descending scale, greater degree of loudness, slower tempo of speech), colloquial style (lowered degree of loudness, great number of hesitation pauses).

- aestatic, general impression from the person’s speech. Harmony (благозвучие).

- social, information about gender, age, education, the place one lives.

In the English language, all syllables are either stressed or unstressed. English metric poetry is built upon varying the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Recognizing the patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables in English is quite simple.

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