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Phonostylistics. Types and styles of pronunciation in English. Intonational styles.
Phonostylistics studies the way phonetic means of the language function in various oral realizations of the language. The choice of the phonetic means suitable to this or that situation depends on a number of factors, among which extra-linguistics ones are very important as they result in phonostylistic varieties.
1) Information Style
It seems to be the most neutral as its main purpose is to convey information without expressing any emotions or attitudes. It is the least marked kind of situationally influenced English. This kind of style is used mostly in broadcasting, press reporting, oral representation of any information or a written text, in formal business conversations and classroom teaching. 2) Academic Style
It is used in lectures, scientific discussions, conferences, etc. Its purpose is to inform, to win the attention and interest of the public, to establish a contact with the audience. As it is an intellectual and volitional type of speech (the speaker appeals to the intellect and will of the listener) it requires some emotional colouring.
3) Publicistic Style
This is the style of public discussions on political, judicial or economic topics, sermons, parliamentary debates. Its aim is to persuade, to influence, to involve the audience into the talk and to make the listeners take the speaker’s point of view. It is never spontaneous and is often even rehearsed. This style is extremely emotional, mimics and gestures are widely applied. 4) Declamatory Style
It is used on stage, TV screen or in class in reading aloud prose or poetry. Its aim is to appeal simultaneously to the mind and emotions of the listener, so this style is highly emotional and expressive. It requires special training. 5) Conversational Style
This is the style of every-day communication between friends, relatives, well-acquainted people. It is relaxed, characterized by the lack of planning, so it is unpredictable, there are a lot of errors, slips, hesitations, elliptical constructions.
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