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Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the translation of Infinitive as an adverbial modifier.

Note!Инфинитив (инфинитивный оборот) стоит в начале предложения перед подлежащим или в конце предложения и переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением со словами «чтобы», «для того, чтобы» или существительным с предлогом «для».


1) It is necessary to join two parts of the mold before pouring the metal.

2) To cast large castings in the permanent molds is very difficult.

3) To remove the casting from the mold, it is disjoined.

4) To produce strong castings it is necessary to control all operations in the foundry.

5) Different ladles are used to pour the molten metal into molds.

6) Metals for permanent molds must be of high melting point to withstand the temperature of the cast metal.

7) Materials to be used in casting must be carefully controlled.


18. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the conjunction «in order to …» («in order that …») – «чтобы», «для того, чтобы».


1) In order to melt metals furnaces are used in the foundry.

2) Permanent molds are usually employed in order to produce many castings from one mold.

3) Two parts of the mold are joined in order to pour the metal.

4) In order to obtain the molding sand, some water, sand and other materials are used.

5) Suitable molding materials and cast metals must be employed in order that the quality of castings could be high.


19. Compare the following sentences. Pay attention to the translation of conjunction. «because» («так как», «потому что») and preposition «because of» («вследствие», «из-за»). Translate the sentences into Russian.


1) Because of the wide electrical uses copper is used more as pure metal than in the form of alloys.

2) Copper is widely used in electricity because it has the highest electrical conductivity.

3) Cast iron is brittle because of the high content of carbon in it.

4) Because of economy and ease of treatment cast iron is commonly used in automobile manufacture.

5) Because of their metallurgical nature some metals can only be cast to shape.

6) Iron parts can only be cast because they cannot be hot-worked into the required shape by other processes.

7) Metal casting has some advantages because a great number of a given castings and very large heavy metal objects may be produced very rapidly.

8) The quality of castings today is much better because of modern development of new technological methods, new machines and new materials.


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