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Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы

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EXERCISE 4. Complete the sentences using reflexive pronouns.




1. I tried to study but I just couldn’t concentrate ____.

2. They had a great time. They really enjoyed ____.

3. Be careful! That pan is very hot. Don’t burn ____.

4. It isn’t her fault. She really shouldn’t blame ____.

5. Don’t worry about Tom and me. We can look after ____.

6. Bill fell down some steps but fortunately he didn’t hurt ____.

 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: Level A

 

НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ SOME, ANY, NO, EVERY, MANY, MUCH, A LOT OF, FEW, LITTLE SOME, ANY – употребляются с исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе и неисчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе со значением «некоторое количество, немного, сколько-нибудь». SOME – употр.: 1) в утвердительных предложениях: I’ve got some English books to read.; There is some rice in the bowl. 2) в вопросительных предложениях, при выражении просьбы или предложения: Would you like some coffee? ANY – употр.: 1) в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях: We didn’t buy any flowers.; He never does any work. 2) в утвердительных предложениях в значении «любой»: You can catch any bus as they all go to the centre. 3) после союза IF: If I find any of your books, I’ll send them to you. NO– употр. в утвердительных предложениях с отрицательным значением перед существительным. Сравни: There are no monitors here. There aren’t any monitors here. EVERY – употр. в утвердительных, вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях в единственном числе в значении «каждый» или для обозначения всей группы предметов: Every sentence must have a verb. (= all sentences) Производные неопределенные местоимения и наречия употребляются по тем же правилам:  
Something – что-то, что-нибудь, что-либо Somebody=someone – кто-то, кто-нибудь, кто-либо Somewhere – где-то, где-нибудь, куда-нибудь Please give me something to read. / There’s somebody at the door. /Let’s go somewhere warm and sunny. Anything – что-нибудь; все, что угодно Anybody=anyone – кто-то, кто-либо, любой Anywhere – где-нибудь, куда-нибудь, куда угодно I don’t want anything to eat./ There isn’t anybody at the door./You can invite anybody you like./Do you live anywhere near Jim?
Nothing – ничто, ничего Nobody= no one – никто, никого Nowhere – нигде, никуда There is nothing in that room./I saw nobody here yesterday./-Where are you going? –Nowhere. Everything – всё Everybody=everyone – все (каждый) Everywhere – везде, повсюду I’ll do everything I can to help./Everybody was there in time./I was looking for you everywhere.

 

NONE – в значении «никто, нисколько, ни один» употр. в утвердительных предложениях вместо существительного, заменяя его, либо в структуре «none of + сущ./мест. во мн. ч.»: How many tickets have we got? – None. / We took some photos but none of them were very good.

MUCH, MANY– «много» употр. в отрицательных и вопросительных предложениях. (Искл. после слов so, very, too – в утвердительных предложениях).

MUCH– употр. с неисчисляемыми существительными: We didn’t need much flour./ How much sugar do we need?

MANY– употр. с исчисляемыми существительными: There aren’t many books on the shelf./ How many English words do you know?

A LOT OF (LOTS OF) – «много» употр. в утвердительных предложениях с исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми существительными: I have a lot of friends./ We spent a lot of money.

LITTLE, FEW– «мало, не достаточно» употр. в утвердительных и вопросительных предложениях.

LITTLE– употр. с неисчисляемыми существительными: I drink little coffee. I don’t like it.

FEW – употр. с исчисляемыми существительными: The theatre was almost empty. There were very few people there.

A LITTLE, A FEW – «немного, но достаточно» = SOME:

Сравни: We’ve got a little time before the train leaves. / We must be quick. We have little time.

I have a few friends and we meet quite often. / He isn’t popular. He has few friends.

 

 

EXERCISE 1. Fill in some, any or no into the gaps.

1.I’d like to buy … new clothes but I haven’t got … money. 2. Are there … letters for me? 3. There’s … milk in the jug. 4. There are … people in the park because it is cold. 5. When would you like to come? – … day would suit me. 6. Was there … water in the glass or … milk? 7. Bob always likes … sugar in his coffee. 8. There are … flowers here in winter. 9. Will you have … pudding or … fruit? 10. Have you got … time to spare? I’d like to ask you … questions. 11. Can I have … milk in my tea? I don’t like it black. 12. There is … tea in the cup: the cup is empty.

EXERCISE 2. Complete the sentences with some, any,no, every + -thing,

-body, -where or none.

1.My husband taught our son … he knows. 2. I can’t find my book … . I have looked … . 3. I think there is … wrong with my watch. 4. The question was so difficult that … could answer it. 5. The student didn’t understand … because she heard … . 6. How much money have you got? – … . 7. Does he know … about computers? – Yes, he knows … because he is the best specialist in computer science at Harvard University. 8. You should go … next summer. 9. … is all right, the patient is much better today. 10. Is there … here who knows French? 11. Her patient has a bad memory. She can’t remember … . 12. I saw … in the train yesterday who looked like you. 13. We cancelled the party because … of the people we invited were able to come. 14. We’ve got … to eat. We’ve got only … to drink. 15. Sally was upset about … and refused to talk to … . 16. He felt terrible. He couldn’t do … else. 17. Johnny lives … near Chicago.

 

EXERCISE 3. Translate into English using much, many, little, few.

Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много мяса, много машин.

Мало домов, мало чая, мало чашек, мало бумаги, мало супа, мало света, мало детей, мало дворцов, мало цветов, мало соли, мало кофе, мало сока.

 

EXERCISE 4. Fill in a lot of, much, many, little, few, a little, a few.

1.He eats … fish. 2. I’m sorry. I have very … money at the moment. 3. At the conference we met … people whom we knew well. 4. There are very … old houses left in our street. Most of them have already been pulled down. 5. If you have … spare time, look through this book. You will find … stories there which are rather interesting. 6. She wrote us … letters from the country. 7. There are … things here which I cannot understand. 8. Shall I bring … more chalk? – No, thank you. There is … chalk on the desk. 9. He had … English books at home, so he had to go to the library for more books. 10. She gave him … water to wash his hand and face. 11. I’d like to say … words about my journey. 12. After the play everybody felt … tired. 13. Sue drinks … coffee. 14. The weather has been very dry recently. We’ve had … rain. 15. I’m not very busy today. I haven’t got … to do. 16. He isn’t popular. He has … friends.

 




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