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1. Have a nice holiday! ___ yourself! 2. Can you ___ this rule ___ me? 3. I have been ___ you for 20 minutes already. 4. Everybody ____ me ___ the accident. 5. My salary is not enough to ____. 6. She ____ very bad headaches. 7. Before you go into the house, I must ____ you ___ the dog. 8. Dont ___ the knife ___ me. Its dangerous. 9. When I finished my meal, I ____ the waiter ____ the bill. 10. Police are ____ the man who escaped from prison.

 

EXERCISE 3. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use a preposition.

1. I spend quite a lot of money _____.

2. Daves got his birthday today. I am going to congratulate ______.

3. His parents dont approve ______.

4. Sue accused me ______.

5. We complained ______.

6. Hes very selfish. He doesnt care ______.

 

Prepositions and Prepositional Adverbs as Idioms

EXERCISE 4. Study the examples and compose your own sentences with the prepositional phrases.

Inside out

She turned this place inside out looking for her keys.

Up and out

Why are you still sleeping? Youll be late. Up and out of bed now.

On and on

That record plays on and on. I wish they would change it.

In and out

We wont stay long at the party; just a quick in and out.

To and fro

The dog ran to and fro across the lawn.

For and against

Give me the arguments for and against this case.

Down and out

Nobody loves you when you havent got any money and youre down and out.

Round about

I dropped my keys in the sand round about here somewhere, but I dont know exactly where.

THE VERB Present Forms: Level B

 
  Present Simple Present Cont. Present Perfect Present Perfect Cont.
a Permanent situations or states She works as a nurse. He owns a large shop. Temporary situations They are staying at the Park Hotel at present. Recently completed actions She has tided her room (She has finished tiding her room. You can see it is tidy now evidence in the present) Actions started in the past and continuing up to the present Hes been writing a letter for two hours. (He started two hours ago and hes still writing it.)
b Repeated/habitual actions (especially with frequency adverbs: often, usually, etc) I usually get up at 7.30. Actions happening at or around the moment of speaking She is looking for a better job. Actions which happened at an unstated past time and are connected with the present He has lost his keys. (He is still looking for them.) Past action of certain duration having visible results or effects in the present Shes been crying. (Her eyes are red.)
c Permanent truths or laws of nature Money doesnt buy happiness. Water freezes at 0C. Repeated actions with always expressing annoyance or criticism Shes always interrupting me! Personal experiences/changes which have happened Ive lost 10 kilos. Actions expressing anger, irritation, annoyance, explanations or criticism Who has been using my toothbrush? (annoyance)
d Timetables/programmes (future meaning) The plane leaves at 6.10. Fixed arrangements in the near future The Browns are visiting us tonight (Its all arranged.) Emphasis on number Shes written three letters since this morning. Emphasis on duration (usually with for, since, how long) Shes been calling on clients since this morning.
e Reviews/sports commentaries/dramatic narrative Meryl Streep acts brilliantly in this film. Changing or developing situations His English is getting better.    

Time expressions used with:

Present Simple every day/week/month/year, usually, often, always, rarely, never, sometimes, in the morning/evening/afternoon, at night, on Mondays, etc
Present Cont. now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, today, tonight, always, still
Present Perfect just, ever, never, already, yet, always, how long, so far, recently, since, for, today, this week/month, etc
Present Perfect Cont. how long, for, since

NOTE: live, feel and work can be used either in the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous with no difference in meaning.

Ive been leaving / Ive lived in Rome for a year.

State verbs

Verbs describing a permanent state (state verbs) do not normally have continuous forms. These are:

(1) verbs of the senses: see, hear, smell, feel, taste, etc

(2) verbs of opinion: agree, believe, consider,etc

(3) verbs of emotions: feel, forgive, hate, like, love, etc

(4) other verbs: appear (=seem), be, belong, fit, have (possess), know, look (=appear), need, prefer, require, want, weigh, wish, etc

The verbs look, watch, listen express deliberate actions and can be used in continuous forms.

 

See, smell, taste, feel, think, have, etc have continuous forms but there is a difference in meaning:

verb STATE ACTION
think I think she is rich. Im thinking about your plan.
taste The milk tastes awful. He is tasting the sauce; it might need some salt.
have He has a pet dog. Hes having dinner now.
feel This cloth feels like velvet. Shes feeling her way in the dark.
see I see you are in trouble. Im seeing my lawyer tonight.
smell The kitchen smells of burnt meat. Why are you smelling your food?
come He comes from Spain. Hes coming from Spain.
love I love holidays. Im loving this holiday.
look Your hair looks great. She is looking at some old photographs.
weigh The baby weighs 5 kilos. Im weighing myself on my new scales.
be Ann is very tall. Ann is being very kind to me these days.

 

Have gone to, have been to, have been in

He has gone to Paris. (= He is there or on his way to Paris)

He has been to Paris once. (= Hes visited Paris once but hes back now.)

He has been in Paris for three months. (= Hes in Paris now.)

In other words:

Ive never eaten mango before. = Its the first time Ive ever eaten.

Ive never seen such a good film. = Its the best film Ive ever seen.




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