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EXERCISE 9. Complete the sentences using the words in bold.

1. "Let me help you with your essay," the professor said to me.

suggested The professor ….. my essay.

2. "When did you move in? " he asked her.

when He asked ….. in.

3. The thief said: "I didn’t steal the car. "

stealing The thief ….. the car.

4. "Would you like me to do the shopping?" Steve said.
offered Steve….. the shopping.

5. "I'm sorry I came late," Pam said.

coming Pam ….. late.

6. I asked him: "Did you enjoy yourself in Spain? "

had I asked him …… a good time in Spain.

7. "Don't play football on the grass!" he said to us.
forbade He ….. on the grass.

8. "You lied to the police," he said to Mark.

lying He ….to the police.

9. "No, I won't ask her out again," he said.

refused He ….. again.

10. "Ok, it was me who broke the window," he said.
having He ….. the window.



Relative Clauses are introduced with:

a) relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that

b) relative adverbs: when, where, why.

Relative pronouns
Subject of the verb of the relative clause(cannot be omitted) Object of the verb of the relative clause (can be omitted) Possession (cannot be omitted)
Used for people who/that who/whom/that whose
There’s the boy who/that started the fight. Here’s the woman (who/that) I told you about last week. This is Mrs. Smith, whose daughter works in my office.
Used for things/ animals which/that which/that whose/of which
I saw a film which/that was very good. This is the book (which/that) I read last week. This is the house whose roof/the roof of which was destroyed.
Who, whom, which or that can be omitted when there is a noun or personal pronoun between the relative pronoun and the verb, that is, when they are the objects of the relative clause. When who, which etc are subjects of the relative clause, they cannot be omitted. The dress (which/that) you bought yesterday is very nice.(can be omitted) The man whocalled just now is my brother. (cannot be omitted)
Relative Adverbs
Time when (= in/on/at which) July is the month when a lot of tourists visit the country.
Place where (= in/at/on/to which) That’s the hotel where the guests are staying.
Reason why (= for which) Lack of money is the reason (why) we are not going on holiday.
Prepositions in Relative Clauses
We usually avoid putting prepositions before relative pronouns. That’s the boy with whom I shared the room. (formal – not usual) That’s the boy who/that I shared the room with. (less formal) That’s the boy I shared the room with. (more usual)

Defining / Non-Defining Relative Clauses

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