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КАТЕГОРИИ:






Types of transformers




There are different types of transformers. By the purpose they are classified into step-up transformers and step-down transformers. In a step-up transformer the output voltage is larger than the input voltage, because the number of turns on the secondary winding is greater than that of the primary. In a step-down transformer the output voltage is less than input voltage as the number of turns on the secondary is fewer than that on the primary.

By the construction transformers are classified into core-type and shell-type transformers. In the core-type transformers the primary and the secondary coils surround the core. In the shell type transformers the iron core surrounds the coils. Electrically they are equivalent. The difference is in the mechanical construction.

By the methods of cooling transformers are classified into air-cooled, oilcooled and water-cooled transformers.

By the number of phases transformers are divided into singlephase and polyphase transformers.

Instrument transformers are of two types, current and potential.

A current transformer is an instrument transformer used for the transformation of a current at a high voltage into proportionate current at a low voltage. Current transformers are used in conjunction with a.-c. meters or instruments where the current to be measured must be of low value. They are also used where high-voltage current has to be metered. A voltage transformer, which is also called a potential transformer, may be defined as an instrument transformer for the transformation of voltage from one value to another. This transformer is usually of a step-down type because it is used when a meter is installed for use on a high-voltage system.

Transformers operate equally well to increase the voltage and to reduce it. The above process needs a negligible quantity of power. Transformers are widely used in our everyday life. All radiosets and all television sets are known to use two or more kinds of transformers. These are familiar examples showing that electronic equipment cannot do without transformers.

II. Guess the meaning of the following international words:

1) to classify; 2) method; 3) phase; 4) instrument; 5) system; 6) process; 7) radio; 8) television.

III. Give the English equivalents for the words below:

1) цель; 2) повышающий / понижающий трансформатор; 3) выходящее / входящее напряжение; 4) число витков; 5) механическое устройство; 6) монофазные / полифазные трансформаторы; 7) высокое / низкое напряжение; 8) определять; 9) работать; 10) незначительное количество.

IV. Translate into Russian the words and expression from the text:

1) core-type / shell-type transformers; 2) air-cooled / oil-cooled / water-cooled transformers; 3) current / potential transformers; 4) in conjunction with smith; 5) to reduce; 6) electronic equipment.

V. Complete the sentences using the text:

1. By the purpose transformers are …

2. By the construction transformers are …

3. By the methods of cooling transformers are …

4. By the number of phases transformers are …

5. Transformers operate equally well…

6. Process of voltage changing needs…

7. Familiar examples of transformer applications are …

VI. Answer the questions:

1. What voltage is larger in a step-up transformer and why?

2. What voltage is less in a step-down transformer and why?

3. What is the construction of a core-type transformer?

4. What is the construction of a shell-type transformer?

5. What are the two types of instrument transformers?

6. What are current transformers used for?

7. What are potential transformers used for?

VII. Topics for discussion:

1) Types of transformers;

2) Use of transformers in everyday life.

UNIT 17

I. Read the text.




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