5 :


. . .


Comparative Chart of Vowel Phonemes in Canadian English, General American and RP 1


CE GA RP Examples
i i Seat
e, e e e, e set
  & sat
i i i sit
3r a: bird, Hurry
, a centre, data
a a dot
a, & (ar)ae : dance
: sort, shawl
V book
ei er ei bake
SI ai ai bike
au au now
ou ou ou go
  DI boy
(ir) (ir)1 1 here
(er) (6) there
(or) (ar) more
() (or) sure

1 Ij. lea], [09], Eu] correspond to the QA (), [srj. [srj,

There are three main types distinguished within RP pronunciation; 1) conservative used by older generation, by certain professions or social groups, 2) the general RP used by the BBC, and 3) the advanced RP, used by young people, or in some circles for prestige purposes.

The main differences between standard and advanced RP are the following:

1) The closing diphthongs are pronounced with the weakened or
lost glide, e. g.

/tel/ instead of /teil/

/ou/ turns into /a:/, e. g. /:/ instead of /boim/ /ai/ turns into /a3/ or /a/, e. g. /ba3d/, /bad/ instead of /baid/ // turns into /aa/, or /a/, e. g. /taa/, or /t<t/ instead of / /oi/ turns into /o:/, e. g. /bo:/ instead of /boi/ {tall, call are exceptions)

2) The centring diphthongs are levelled with monophthongs:

/ia/, // turn into /e:/ or long //, - g. bared, fared, pared are pronounced as /bs:d/, /fs:d/, /pe:d/

/is/ is opposed to // in open syllables, e. g. hearhair, fearfair. This opposition does not occur before voiceless, or before /1/.

// turns into /a/, e. g. /san/ instead oi /sAn/

3) The glottal stop is used between words and syllables, e. g
/ni?jehti/, /6i >?a:nt/, /Oet'?eib1/that table.

4) /r/ is pronounced like the GA retroflex /r/.


1. What is standard pronunciation? 2. What are the main differences between the RP and GA a) systems of consonants; b) system^ of vowels; c) accentual structure and intonation? 3, What is "advanced" RP?


1. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

farm, bird, sister, leave, let, late, berry, merry, very, Bett , .bottle* little, city, certainly, that one, mountain, which, what, when, due,1 new, suit, excursion, version, Persia, man, name, noun, nationa^

2. Read the words below

(a) with the vowel /i/ obscured:

will, fill, building, river, spirit, miracle, beer

(b) with the vowel lei lower than the RP /e/:
bell, well, best, lest, nest, hell

jc) with the vowel /el diphthongized /W, /a/:

bet, get,-detr met,.neck,-check,iet; -

3. Read the words below

(a) with the OA more frönt arid longer than the RP /je/:

ask, dance, last, answer,' half, aunt

(b) with the RP /se/ nasalized before I A, m, n/:
bad, man, land, answer

4. Read the words below according to the GA standard.

hurry PWij, current /*1:/, courage /^idg/, worry /lW3ri/ furrow /'{/, squirrel />skw3r3l/, stirrup //, clerk /?/ derby /Wbi/

5. Read the words below with the /r/-colouring terminally.

winter, perceiver, doctor, mister, sister, Webster

6. Read the words below according to the GA standard-
not, crop, dock, nod, father, palm, balm, calm

7. Read the words below according to the GA standard,

hop, rob, not, lock; doll, solve, on; frog, log, long; law, court

8- Read the words below. Compare the pronunciation of theJRP and GA diphthongs, of the Jong monophthongs /?:, a/.

gate, date, late, Kate, mate, make; radio, goat, coat; far, formr fare, bare, poor, mare, near, door

9, Read the words below. Mind the tertiary stress differences in RP and OAl


'dictionary idictiojnary

iFerbuary >FebrU|ary

'ordinary 'ordinary

'category icateigory

territory lterri|tcry

'cemetery 'cemetery

'monastery 'monastery

'matrimony 'matrimony

'testimony 'testimony

'necessarily 'necessarily

'ordinarily 'ordinarily

10. Read the words below. Mind the place of primary stress on thejsecond com
ponent in RP and on the first component in GA compounds.


'apple'source 'appleisource

'beefsteak 'beefsteak

'elseiwhere 'elsewhere

ifarraJhouse 'farmihouse

'mean'time 'meanitime

White 'House White iHouse

J-midf<Jay 'working 'man

'mid|day 'working

11. Read the place names below. Mind a single primary stress in RP and a primary and a tertiary stress in GA.

GA iBirming|ham 'Bloomjbury ^kih


* Birmingham


gi iDartjinoor 'Moor | gate Newfoundland 'Peterborough iDhi



) Moorgate




j <Ex(mouth iHampistead 'High|gate ^ll

'Ex moor




yj' Man (Chester



12. Read the GA general questions with a Jailing tone (the counterpart tone
In RP would be rising).

Are you going? Does he care?

13. Read the GA casual requests with the falling tone (this intonation in RP
would suggest a command).

Come in, Sit down. Shut the door. Ojjen the book.


Exercises p. 14

1. witches /witj, -iz/, glasses /glas, -iz/, foxes /ftjks, -iz/, gases /gaes, -iz/V
judges /dgAc^, -iz/, crashes /kraj", -iz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, elves /elf, -vz/, halves
/haf, -vz/, knives /naif, -vs/, leaves /Itf, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, loafs /lauf, -vz/,
selves /self, -vz/, sheaves /Jif, -vz/, thieves /6l:f, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, wolves
/wulf, -vz/, actresses /Isektns, -iz/, hostesses /Ihaustis, -iz/, mistresses /Imistns, -iz/,
■sculptresses /IskAlptns, -iz/, waitresses /Iweitns, -iz/, lionesses /Harems, -iz/

2. begged /begd/, lived /!ivd/, opened /laupand/, travelled /Itrsevld/, cancelled
/Usensald/, compelled /kamlpeld/, recognized /Irekagnaizd/, arrived /alraivd/,
rained /rerad/, informed /mlfoimd/, stopped /stupt/, wrapped /rsept/, helpedi
/helpt/, asked /a;skt/, discussed /dislkAst/, worked /werkt/, passed /past/, shipped
/Jtpt/, packed /psekt/, looked /lukt/, nodded /InDdid/, permitted /palmitid/,,
waited /Jweitid/, expected /ikslpektid/, invented /inlventid/, rested /Irestid/,.
.loaded /llsudid/, depended /dilpendid/

3. /IneifcnInsejanl/, /greivIgnsviti/, /pratvaukpralvukstiv/, /zfcl
Jzebs/, /sju(:)lprtaisjulprenrasi/, /alkg.' alkArsns/, /adlvaisadlvaiz/, /jus
jt*z/, /haushauz/, /ikslkjirs ikslkjua/, /dilvaisdilvaiz/, /Il^sbz/,/kiaus

4. /Jredbrest/ ; /Iblitbe]/; /Ibbsfeun/ ;-
/ibmlamz/ , ; /lbto|bDtl/
; /Iblaekjait/ , ; /Iblsekfeis/ (.)
; /lba:dzai/ ; /lbred3n(d)tbAte/ , , ;
/Ibreikipromis/ , ;/fheviweit/ ,
; /Iredbuk/ ; /tbluitsbkirj/ ;
/iblumauz/ ; /Iblmkaut/ ; ;
; /Iblitjbtinit/ ; ; /Ibtekhaul/^ .^, ,

; /Iblaäkrnss/

5, /stil/ , ; /sti:l/ ; /pml/ , /pul/ ;
/,fip/ ; /j"If/ ; /sit/ , /sfct/ ; /til/ , //
; /liv/ , /liiv/ ; /il/ ; /1:1/ ; /slip/ ,
/slip/ ; /sei/ , /seil/ ; /Imudl/ , /Irraudi/ ;
/so:/ , /sau/ , ; /IpauhJV , /IpühJ/ , ;
// , , /gaid/ , ; /W8:6/ , , /W3:s/
, ; /tiu-9/ , /tiixs/ ; /bAt/ ,
, /9/ ; /breD/ , /bredG/ ; /Idaian/ , /Idean/
; /sjuit/ , /swtt/ ; /paltreul/ , /ipetr(s)l/
; // , /Imeid-sa/ ; /raut/ , , /rust/

8. Rhythm.

9. give particular importance to the word think.

_, . i0; (a) Tne sounds /s, J/ are repeated to express the idea of sea movement. Thls\hIIPe helPs to Practise their differentiation.

(b) The sounds /u, ae, i, / are repeated in the rhyme to practise thei* pronunciation and differentiation.

.11. /bau-wau, mJiE-mjur, grAnt-grAnt, skwi:k,;tuihu:, kau-kau, kwffik-kwffikrmu;/. Onomatopoeia.

Control Tasks p. 17 3

s/; riotroutroute /raiatrautmt/; 7. bea /^811''; 8-, yearear /js:(jis)ia/; 9, quayqueue /kiskj.is/t 10. admit admittance /adlmit-adlmibns/; II. affect-effect /elfekt-ilfekt/t 12. draught-drought /draftdraut/,- 13. hairhareheir/heaheaea/j 14. pourpoor

4. very vary /Iveri Ivean/; 2. personal personnel /Ipaisnal tpa:saln el1/;
tf. suitsuite/sjujtswH/; 4. patrolpetrol /paltraulIpetral/; 5, mayormajor
/- imeidsa/; 6. riot-rout-route /Iraiatraut-mt/; 7. bear-beer
/^81'; 8 /j(j)/ 9 /kikj/ 10 dit


paw / /; 15. couragecarriage /IkindgIksciij/; 16. inquire acquire /mlkwaiselkwaia/

6. wolves /wulf, -vz/, wives /waif, -vz/, lives /laif, -vz/, leaves /li:f, -vz/,
knives /naif, -vz/, sheaves /jfcf, -vz/, halves /hccf, -vz/, selves /self, -vz/, elves
/elf, -vz/, loaf /lauf, -vz/, calves /kaf, -vz/, echoes /lekau, -z/, potatoes
/palteiteu, -z/, hostesses /lhaustas, -iz/, tigresses /Itaigras, -iz/, bases /ibeisis, -Iz/,
theses /löfcsu, -fcz/, crises /Ikraisis, -i:z/, analyses /alnselasis, -fcz/, men /msnmen/,
feet /fletfit/, geese 8gfcs/, mice /mausraais/, baths /ba:9, -8s/, houses
/haus, -iz/, classes flalas, -iz/, boxes /bioks, -iz/, dishes /dij, -iz/, inches /ratj", -iz/,
phenomena /fclnomman, -/, foci /Ifaukas, -sai/

./"D,3-9/;/eia.zs/;/39/;/tuu, zs/; /vS/; /i,vf/; /v-f/; /v-f/

7. /fmsiltinlsAlt/ ; /lübdgiktabtdsekt/
; /lautgau lauttgau/ , ; /Iprudjus
praldjt/ ; /lsAbd3ikt sabldgekt/ ,
; /lautgreuO lautlgrau/ ; /lautiei autflei/
, , ; /laut(l)9reuautlörau/
(-,); /Iprezntpnlzent/ , ;
/Iprsutest' praltest/ ; /itoimsnttalment/

8. Alliteration, rhyme, rhythm.

9. Through the repatition of the sounds /ju:, ei, ai, A/, syllabification and

Exercises p. 33

8. In the articulation of /p, t, k/ the vocal cords are taken apart and do not vibrate. In the production of /b, d, g/ the vocal cords are drawn close together and vibrate. In the /p, t, k/ articulation the force of exhalation is much greater than that in the production of /b, d, g/, therefore /p, t, k/ are voiceless fortis and /b, d, g/ are voiced lenis.

4. In the articulation of /m, n, rj/ the soft palate is lowered. In the articu
lation of /ij/ it is not only lowered, but forms a complete obstruction with
the back part of the tongue. The air escapes through the nasal cavity.

5. In the articulation of /b/ the noise is produced when the flow of air
breaks the complete obstruction formed by both lips, /b/ is an occlusive plosive
stop noise consonant. In the articulation of hi the noise U produced when the
flow or air passes through the incomplete obstruction formed by the lower lip
and the edge of the upper teeth, hi is a constrictive noise consonant. In the ar
ticulation of/tf/ the noise is produced by the flow of air first breaking a complete
obstruction between the tip of the tongue and the teethridge and almost imme
diately passing through the narrowing formed between the tip of the tongue
and the teethridge, /tf/ is occlusive-constricttve, or affricate.

6. In the articulation of /w/the active organs of speech are the lips, which
form a round narrowing. In the articulation of /j/ the active organ of speech is
the middle part of the tongue which is raised to the hard palate and forms a
narrowing with it, through which the air goes out rather freely. In the articu
lation of /h/ the walls of the glottis are slightly contracted when the air goes out
through it almost without any friction, /w/ is bilabial, /j/ is medlo-lingual,
/h/ is glottal.

8. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of /s/ (lenis) its between the teethridge and the front part of the tongue. There is groove-shaped depression in the front part of the tongue, through which the air passes with friction: it passes through a round narrowing. The place of articulation (focus) in the production of III is between the lower iip and the edge of the upper teeth. The air passes through this narrowing with friction. The narrowing in III articulation is more or less flat.

10. /Iptpl/, /Ipeipa/, /lpa:p3S/, /Ipusabl/, /put/, /pens/, /Ipiti/, /pua/, /Iptsiz/, /pst/, /Ipeni/, /tk/, /taim/, /taun/, /taiz/, /items/, /tuk/. /Iteeksiz/, /hl/, /itfctjaz/, /ta:nd/, /Itsutl/, /tus/, /tm/, /Unz/, /to:ts/, /kauid/, /Ikeaful/, /kcu/, /, /IkAirad/, /küst/, /kist/, /Iksmpas/, /lke:tli/, /Ikutwig/, /IkAraits/, /)1/

Exercises p. 44

4. Cardinal vowel No. 1 is pronounced with the position of the tongue
higher than for the Russian accented // in such words as , , .

Cardinal vowel No. 2 is pronounced with the position of the tongue narrower than for the Russian /e/ in the words , .

Cardinal vowel No. 3 is similar to the Russian // in the words , .

5. For instance: /td/bitbid, batbad, debt dead; /k~g/ duck dug,
Dick dig, tuck tug; // , ; // ; //
, .

. The beginning of the articulation of (ku>/ coincides with that of /i u/

// (e) /diddid/ /dd

12. (a) /si :msins/ /mi:lmil/ /mi:nmins/ /sli.-p-slip/ /Ibst list/ (c) /ttmtim/ /-fil/ /bto


/3dgtm/ /IfMinIfilirj/ /fct-it/ /slitssits/ (g) /Itv-lw/ /IffcveIhfti/ /Iblikanbil/ /tj-fcktjm/ /bttbit/

33. (a) /bedb£ed/ /9en/ /tplentiplasn/ /elsIffilis/ /Itetedsede/

(c) /frentj1-ran/ /penspsents/ /IbenalIbawau/ /Itwenti twffin/ /I memImaetg/

(e) /deddeed/ /leni tjelrs/ /IJeb-Jal/ /)men Imasrid/ /Ihenn lhaepi/

<fi) /Iheti-hajt/

/IsentralIsaandi/ /ltjevt-lt,fenl/ /Iraemrneep/ /iveslIvsljus/ /leldah lenkfts/

t4. (a) /kam/ /ISa1/

(b) /riidnd/

/Stfel Stil/

/krfckknk/ /slfctsht/ /sfcksik/ (d) /sfcnsm/ /IdtbIdina/ /htthit/' /bbtbit/

(f) /f!:Zfiz/

/mtmist/ /Jffcz9is/ /sttpstik/

(h) /hthim/ /Glim9in/ /sfetssits/

/Sti:p Stlf/


(b) /hedhad/




/sillektnllseks/ (d) /endand/




/Ihelpin Ihspi/ (f) /tentsen/




/t Jest-t Jap/ (h) /lern teokjbs/




(b) /antUnda/ /hadHundred/

/dak / /'baskit'/ /lakflAf/ (d) /dandAn/ /bat bAt/ /katkAt/ /matf mAtf/ (f) /lhadli !/ /1rAbd/ /lastlAk/

/ban IbAtn/ /Iak-Uk/ /Iklasiz IbAsiz/

(c) /Imaval 1/ /l<tfIIavIi/ /past IpAzhrj/ /'makit/ /last/

(e) /fanld 1/ /Imasta ImAgki /Istatid IsUdi/ /lldlt

fh) /am1/ /lhadli Ih/ /IstatidistAdid/ /matfnutf/ /hafstrAk/

/lastl (g) /fransfrAnt/


/adlvccntidsal /


/postbAt/ (i) /stfflstAn/




/mask inAst/

/tl;mtentsen/ /hidhed hjed/ /liftleft-ted/ /litlettek/ /m tnImem
/tornte:nteen/ /1:1kffii/ /badbs:dbsed/ /tjktj:trJtj
/jjr /ssS3:sad/ /Ikj Ik3:tnkset/

15. /bid-bed-bffid/

16. /:1-:1Jffil/
/wD;kW3 :k waek/
:-fa: fat/

[Control Tasks p. 57

2. The allophones of the It! phoneme are for example: labialized in: rockr roof, rook, raw; devoiced in: present, practice, problem, protract; affricated in: tree, trim, troop, try, drain, dry, drop, draw; single tap in; throw, throng, threepence, thrust.

3. As a result of palatalization in the Russian language consonants alwy
occur soft phonemes and the vowel phonemes turn to the /j/+V positional"
allophone of the vowel phoneme.

4, The examples may, for instance, be as follows: complementary distribu
tion of /u/: pool, food, shoe, youth, cool, who, stoop, tube, hoof, booth, boot, rouge,
(Each word is given as an example of different /u/ environment, which
cannot be observed in other words.); contrastive distribution of /u/: bookbeak,
footfit, bookback, bookbeck, bookbark, putpot, putport;
free varia
tion in the pronunciation of the words: decapitation /fäiiktepitteij'an, dUjksept-
Iterjan/, deciduous /dilsldjuas, dtlsidjwgs/.

Exercises p. 62

1. Work of the vocal cords: voiceless fortis vs. voiced lenis: pinbin, packback, piebye, tiedie.

Active organ of speech and the place of articulation; labial, bHabial vs. Singual forelingual apical alveolar; penten, beendean; labial bilabial vs. lingual backlingual: polecoal, baitgait; labial, labio-dental vs. labial bilabial: feewe, feltwell; labial, labio-dental vs. pharyngal:/eehe; lingual, forelingual apical vs. lingual forelingual cacuminal: sobrob, sealreal, .■solerole, siprip, sightright.

Manner of noise production: occlusive vs. constrictive: pitycity, pay say, pallsail, polesole, peelseal.

Voice or noise prevalence: occlusive noise (plosives) vs. occlusive sonorants i(nasal): pinemine, debtnet, kickNick; constructive noise (fricatives) vs. constrictive sonorants: fellwell, thoserose, soulrole, siprip, sightright.

The number of noise producing foci: unicentral vs. bicentral: fellwell, feewe.

The shape of the narrowing; constrictive with a flat narrowing vs. constric-iive with a round narrowing: failsail, feesee, footsoot, fatsat, fellsell-

3. fa) The force of articulation rather than the presence and absence of
■voice: /p b, t d, g/,

(b) Manner or noise production: occlusive /p/ vs. constrictive HI, It s/,
/d z/.

Active organ of speech: bilabial /p/ vs. backlingual /k/, backlingual /k/ vs. forelingual apical /t/.

(c) Manner of noise production: occlusive /t/ vs. occlusive-constrictive /t|Y
or /d/ vs. /ds/; constrictive /J7 vs. occlusive-constrictive /tf/.

(d) Place of articulation and the nurober of foci: interdental /6/ vs. apical
/, alveolar /z/ vs. palato-alveolar /3/, alveolar /5/ vs. palato-alveolar /J/.

Manner of noise production: plosive /t/ vs. constrictive /3/.

(e) Position of the soft palate: oral noise /b/ vs. nasal sonorant /m/, or /d/
vs. /n/, or /g/ vs. /n/.

4. The sub-minimal pairs: marry measure, genre jar, teasure
ledger. All the other pairs are minimal.

Control Tasks p. 63

1. (a) man nap, coming cunning, seem seen; (b) wield yield,
wail Yale; (c) pat cat, supper succour, leap leak

2. (a) less yes, drew due, clue cue, rung young; (b) tame
ame, rudder rugger, sinner singer, bitter bicker, bad bag bat
hack, day,- gay

3. (a) pine fine, bee thee, came lame; (b) fare chair, work
jerk; (c) boat moat, seek seen, kick king, deed need, vain lane,
sicksing; <d) fare chair, thine wine, vain lane; (e) thine wine,
lame -~ same

5. /I, r, j/ after /p/ are devoiced; after /t/ the position of the tongue for hi
in try is not so cacuminal and hi is affricated; /i/ after It/ in tube is devoiced;
/w/ after It/ in twelve is devoiced; /1, r, I, w/ after /k/ are devoiced in clean, cream,
cue, quite.

Exercises pi 67

1. () //. Both are back vowels, but /13/ is an open vowel of broad variation and /a:/ is a mid vowel of broad variation.

(b) /ese/. Both vowels are front, but /e/ is a mid-open vowel of narrow
variation and /se/ is a low (or open) vowel of broad variation.

(c) /9: d:/, /3:/ belongs to the group of central mid-open vowels of narrow
variation, /0:/ belongs to the group of back, fully back mid-open vowels of
broad variation.

(d) / u/, Both vowels belong to the group of back high vowels, but //
belongs to the subgroup of narrow variation and is fully bade, whereas /u/belongs
to the subgroup of broad variation and is a back-advanced voweL

(e) /seei/, //1 is a frönt open vowel o! broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong /ei/ is /e/ which is a front mid-open vowel of narrow variation.

m //. /:/ is a raid fully back vowel of broad variation. The nucleus of the diphthong // is a central mid-open vowel.

3. () /ai/, //; (b) //

4. The phonemes /fc,ei, ac.a:/ in the first row of each column are the longest,
they are shorter in the second, and the shortest is the third row.

5. Stability of articulation.

Control Tasks p. 68

1. (a) /tea/ beadbedbad, deed deaddad; (b) / :a/
cabcurbcub, bad birdbud, tanturnton, hathurthut

2. cartcard Bozbars dondown
wartwhat caughtcot cordcod

3. {a) known noun, phoned found, hay high, bay buy, no
now, hoe how, tape type

(b) hear hair, beer bear, ear air, fear fair, rear rare, tear tear

Exercises p. 74

5. (a) kJ:p, ipi-siz, Itl-ffaz, Ipfcpl, Iparpas, Iksitn, ta:nd, lka:li, k<t, kxts,.
pats, pKz, teik, taim, taiz, tiaz, keuld, Iteutl, ksa, Ipranrj;

(b) til, kist, tin, Ipiti, Ipeni, tel, Items, Ipendsltan, Iksempes, Iksembnan,
Iteksi, put, tuk.'kuk, IkArants, 11, pAmpt, nlpAblik, IkAvad, tAnz, Ipnsrbl,
k-ost, Ikulidj, tos

(c) spent, stei, staun, IstAdi, stik, Istatid, (splendid, ifcslprerrans, iks'tensivh,
Ibaskit, Iklismrj, ikslplem, pleis, !, Iklasiz, plem, krfck, krept, , Iplaitfwm,
a3kt, kept, lukt

6. Iptpl, pet, Ipa:msn3nt', Ittiq; kamp, Ikitjan; Ibiljsdz; Iditarsnt, aildia; get,
algein, ga:lz >

ipsigativ, lepildemik; lkEeps]u:Iz; bed; ibeta; Idifrant

lpi:siz, pens, Ipeitferz; Itventi, Isikslttn, Itainirj; Ikeafli; beidz, big, (Anbilltvablr Idifrsnt, daunt; Iginrz, Igivirj, gauz

Ipiisiz, nlpead, Ipaipss; tiez, teik, te:nd; btn, big, bed, bsek, 8; aildia, dilsaidid, Ididnt, dei; get, gest, geilz, Igsuirj

Iptktjg, (ptanad, ikslpekt, pee; Kifttfcn, misted, Icttsst*, ktp, Ibaskit, vslkeijent
Iksempes; , Wsaid, imjbserasinj IstAdi, depös, deiz, Idsedr; Igigl,, gets, :1

pirjk, ikslpranans, Ipe^i, peitj tin, Iwnntid, teik, ternd; Idrinkirj, keim,. Iksandid, lfce:li; btri, Ibiikan, bit, basd, Iba'.tn; kanldi^gn, Inwdid, aildra; giv, get, ga:Iz

islpejeli, Ipsetan; stil, pölteiteuz, Itjielip; kbp, glkeisenl, kaen, lukfupai; bt,. IJugabM, Ibakbaun; dt; dra, imAdi, da-.t; givz, Uuggast, Iregiulö

, peid, Ipjurplz, Ip3:fikt; t!:tj\ stik,- ltju;zdi, tiaz; ki:p, llukirj, Iksrid3, keuld; bt, albeid, bask, baut; mldfcd, Idim, ldju;h, deit; Igivn, gest, algen, .algaU'

Iptenin, pit, nlpeid, Ipaesmd33; stif, Isiti, greulteak, ta:nz; ktp, Ibreikin, kserid3, ksuld; Ibbin, best, bsek; 1:1; di:l, Iditiz, die, ded; tgetirj, geiv, gaui

7. Ihffipi, Iliikap,' IkAbad, |nju(:)lmaunJ8, 1, 11, bum, Itpmas,
Ihsn, Swtsl, Ibukei, lh?arjkatfif, iwmza, Ikemist, laarjks, Ibsnkwit, iklsept, I
gaust, no:, sain, 1, Idaisfrsem, sai, plaü, eit

Exercises p. 77

6. janjAn.
IgivlraIgivirj ria

11 1


klfcn klm

inutlBirj 1

( Igauirj


sein IseiiQ

< brerk/in I breikrg


6. brig, 1, 'iggland, IJAgga, Iem8in els, lnA6irj av 9a' Ikamd, Iwihrjli,
tteikirj it, Imiagld, Isttpig, 6io, UiArjgn, Ifijirj, Imocmrj, Idramrjl , , IJAOgs
Jt !, sprig, Isfcirj Ifrend Inf, Iklaspirj 19 Ihsendz

7. Iraitirj, frtdirj, Igamrj, gtm, wen, sAg, , sAk, Btrj, Öifc,ihaerja,
, rsQk, kaum, 1;, liogiij, Imiggld

Exercises p. 84

4. thin sin thick sick > thought sought Forth force mouth mouse thumb some - worth worse thick tick thought taught three tree seethe seize lathe laze then den though dough seethe seed heath heat both boat forth fought clothe close breathe breeze there dare other udder worthy wordy months

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