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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

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Comparative Chart of Vowel Phonemes in Canadian English, General American and RP 6 страница




or the beginning of a syllable, it is progressively voiced. In the second word /d/


constitutes the end of the arc of loudness, or the end of the syllable, it is progres- S'Ve SYLLABLE PATTERN /'silgbl 'psetsn/— the type of syllable most common for the language. English and Russian are characterized by CV syllabic pattern, T TABLE OF CONSONANTS, TABLE OF VOWELS /'teibl av 'ktjnsanants, 'teibl av 'vau9lz/ ~ an orderly arrangement of consonants or vowels in verti­cal and horizontal columns. It helps to visualize the system of vowels and con­sonants and to compare them with the similar systems of the mother tongue. TABULATE /'tffibjuleit/ - to arrange in tabular form TACTILE /'tektail/ - of, relating to, or perceived by the sense of touch. TAIL /teil/ — unstressed or partly stressed syllables (or syllable) that follow the nucleus of the intonation group. . TAMBER /'tsernba/ — the quality of a musical sound, depending on what overtones are present and their respective amplitudes. TEETHRIDGE /'thönto/ see ALVEOLES

ce.

TEMPORAL COMPONENT OF INTONATION /temperэ1 paunant av .inteti'neijW — it consists of pauses, duration, rhythm.

TENSE VOWELS /'tens 'vaualz/- these vowels are articulated wt
muscles of the lips, tongue, cheeks and the back wall of the pharynx made hard­
er by tensing, Traditionally they are long vowels: /b, cu, v, w, <s:l, ail snori
vowels are considered to be lax. , , ,. 5„„_4.:nn

TERMINAL TONE /'tammel 'taun/ - a change of pitch at the junction of two sense-groups. The American descriptivists use the term: clause terminal .

TIMBRE /'timba/ see TAMBER, TAMBRE .

TONE /teun/ - sounds may be periodical and non-periodical. « ™ v
brationsof a'physical body are rhythmical, the auditory impression of periodic
waves is a musical tone, or in speech — a speech-tone. .

TONEME /'teuntan/ - the toneme of a sentence or of a мпае-grottp в а
separate phonological unit, because it performs distinctive function, e.g.
\once — "never", 'not /once — "many times . 4tunsst-

TONETIC STRESS MARKS /teu'netik 'stres ,^^W - fhe marks suggest ed by R. Kingdon. They are placed before the stressed ^'e^JS in the same positions as the ordinary stress marks used in pbonetic *nnserg tions. They indicate the intonation as well as the stress. The advantage ош system is that it indicates high and low falling and rising tonöj£ Ä nw el and emphatic tones) in the text proper which enables the pupil to do without

StaVTONETie TRANSCRIPTION /teu'netik trens'knpjenj'- tone and

stress indicators shown by placing special signs on an inlmed sea«,«^ j

between or beside the line of the text, These symbols are different, dashes ana

dots, small and big dots, wedge-like signs, etc. „н-иЫапг orfian.

«TONGUE Лад/ - the most important and movable аг.1'с"Х4 dlffV

TONGUE TWISTERS /'Urj 'twists/ - short rhymes 1 /» |"

cult sounds and sound combinations are included. They are used as trainmB

exercises in teaching pronunciation. .

TONOGRAM /'taun3,grssm/- graphic representation of

„TRACHEA /trg'kfca/ see WINDPIPE.

■or linguistically broad, transcription is based on the P™CIP\ehl?t™Kantlng phoneme". The symbols of phonemic transcription are placed between slanting infiS ii tition is b"^on^ prin-
An iilophonic, or linguistically narrow transcription is ciple "one symbol per allophone". The symbols of an alloph are usually placed between square brackets [ ]. In ift»etta?% transcription is more convenient. An altophonic transcripti to scientific phonetic work.

/t'kj/ th system of sig


TRANSLITERATION ^traenzlita'reijan/ — the representation of the
sounds oJ one language as nearly as possible by the letters and letter combina­
tions of another language. For-ex ample, the Russian ж is represented in English
by the letter combination zh. . ,

TRIPHTHONG /'tnföürj/ — a vowel sound that consists of three elements, the first element is a diphthong and the second — a neutral vowel /a/. In slow, style they are pronounced as a two-syllable unit: /aus/ — /au/ + /э/.

TUNE ONE /'tjim 'wjui/ — a falling tone.

TUNE TWO /'tjrai 'Ы — a rising tone.

TWANG /twasrj/ — a sharp nasal quality of a vowel sound.

TYPICAL TONEMES /'tipikal 'tsunfcmz/ — they are hypothetical^ the following: terminal tönernes, pre-head tönernes, head tönernes, scale tönernes, pitch-level and pitch-range tonemes, rate-of-pitch-change tonemes.

UNACCENTED /'Anak'sentid/ — unstressed.

UNDERTONE /'jtndateun/ — a low tone of voice.

UNICENTRAL CONSONANTS /'jttni'sentrsl 'ktinsanants/ — conso­nants pronounced with a single articulatory obstruction (complete or incom­plete); e.g. /t, d, k, g, p, b, s, z, f, v, rj, h/.

UNILATERAL /'j mil'lateral/ —.the lateral sonant 71/ pronounced with only one side of the tongue lowered (usually it is the left side of the tongue).

UNROUNDED VOWELS /'jm'raundid 'vaualz/— vowels in the articu­lation of which the lips are not rounded la, e, i, aV.

UTTERANCE /'Atarsns/ — v.ocal expression of some idea. ' UVULA /'jttvjuJa/ — a fleshy conical body suspended from the soft palate over the back of the tongue.

VARIANTS CONDITIONED BY DURATION /'vsanants ken'dijend bai djue'reijan/ — quantitative variants of phonemes (positional and combmatory allophones different in length).

VARIANTS CONDITIONED BY STRESS /'vesnants ksn'diyänd bai 'stres/ — variants of phonemes which depend on positional (accentual) condi­tions, e.g../'peer ant/ — /pe'rentl/.

VARIANTS FREE ryeansnts 'frfc/ — two different allophones of a pho­neme pronounced in identical positions by one and the same or different speak­ers,

VARIATIONS STYLISTIC /.veari'eijenz .stai'hstih/— variations in the pronunciation of speech sounds, words and sentences oculiar to different styles of speech.

VARIETY /va'raiati/ — the term is used in connection with the vowels of low and broad variety.

VELAR /'vMa/ — the term is used in the classification о Consonants which are articulated with the help of the soft palate: velar nasal sonofant /rj/, velar stops /k, g/.

VELARIZATION /,vtlorai'zeifon/ - formation of the back-secondary focus which makes the sounds "dark" in tamber /w, r, Xl and the Russian /ж, ш/.

VELUM /'vfclem/ — the soft palate. When the soft palate is raised the air passes out of the mouth cavity, when the soft palate is lowered the flow of air is directed through the nasal cavity.

u VIBRATION OF THE VOCAL CORDS /vai'breijen av бэ 'vsukl 'ko:dz/ —
... when the glottis is narrowed so that the tensed vocal cords approach escb
other or touch lightly, these'may be set in vibratory motion by the outgoing
breath pressure and brought together again by their own elasticity and by mus­
cular tension" (V. A. Vassilyev).
. VISUAL AIDS /'vizju9l 'eidz/ — devices which serve to assist understand­
ing or memory by displaying what is to be understood or memorized in a vi­
sible form: charts, diagrams, tables, pictures, films.


VOCAL BANDS /'vault! 'baendz/ — elastic folds of membrane inside the larynx which vibrate to produce voice, see VOCAL CORDS.

VOCALISM /'vsukshzm/ — the system of vowel phonemes.

VOCOID /'vokoid/ — the term is used by the American linguist K. Pike to express the articulatory closeness of sonorants to vowels. Unlike contoid, a vocoid may form a syllable.

VOICE /vois/ — vocal tone produced by the regular vibrations of the vocal cords.

VOICED CONSONANTS /'voist 'tomsansnts/ — the consonants which are produced with the vocal cords brought together and vibrating.

VOICELESS CONSONANTS /'vdisIis 'kunsanants/ — the consonants which are produced with the vocal cords taken apart and not vibrating.

VOLUME /'vrcljum/ — force or Joudness of sounding speech.

VOWEL DIAGRAMS /'vaual 'daiagrsemz/ — schematic representations-of the system of vowels which are based on physiological principle (genetic prin­ciple) and which represent qualitative differences in the articulation of vowels.

VOWEL MUTATION /'vauel mju'tei/эп/ — umlaut, or modification of a vowel caused by assimilation to a vowel or semivowel (now generally lost)] in the following syllable, a vowel resulting from such assimilation has a mark • * placed over it.

W

WEAK VOWELS /'wfck 'vaualz/ — the vowels which are shorter and less-distinct, sometimes they are reduced to the neutral vowel /si. Weakening or reduction of vowels is a characteristic feature of Russian and English. There are-languages where vowel reduction does not take place (Japanese, Italian, Polish).

WIDENING THE RANGE /'waidmrj Öa 'remcfe/ — one of the emphatic-means which consists in deliberate, widening the pitch-levels of sense-groups. » WINDPIPE /'windpaip/ — trachea or air passage.

WORD /ws:d/ — in phonetics the term refers to the word as a phonetic unit.

WORD-STRESS or WORD ACCENT - every disyllabic and polysyllabic word pronounced in isolation has word-stress. It is a singling out of one or more of its syllables by giving them a greater degree of prominence as compared with-the other syllable or syllables in the same word,

WORD TONEME /'vraid 'tsunfcm/ — a distinctive movement or change oS pitch within the syllable. It exists in the so-called tone languages.


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