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Groups of Conceptions

1) includes the conception that pay special attention to the abstract aspect. This vie is called mentalistic or psychological. According to it, the phoneme is the ideal mental image, it doesn’t exist objectively, it exists only in the mind of the speaker. Actual speech sounds are an imperfect realization of the phoneme. These ideas were expressed by Бодуэн-де-Куртене and later developed by Sapir and others.

2) functional group conception. Because special attention is given to the ability of the phoneme to differentiate the meaning. Scholars are particularly interested in distinctive features, while non-distinctive features are often ignored.

Trubetskoy, Jakobson and Bloomfield.

The greatest achievement of these scholars was that their theory gave rise to phonology as a linguistic discipline. However it resulted in the separation of phonetics and phonology. They claimed that only phonology was a linguistic discipline, while phonetics should belong to biology. The material aspect was ignored by this theory.

3) the material aspect is exaggerated. This approach is called physical and is represented by D. Johnes and an American scholar B. Bloch. And they regarded the phoneme as the family of sounds, i.e. the phoneme is a mechanical sum of its allophones. So, similarity between sounds is considered to be the main criterion for attributing them to a particular phoneme. They ignored abstract and functional aspects.

It also demonstrates, that Scherba’s definition is comprehensive, because it gives equal importance to each of the aspects of the phoneme.


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