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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

Ценовые и неценовые факторы

Характеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы


A common noun acquires a nominal meaning and is used as a proper noun.

Insuch usages, which are also termedspeaking or telling names, token or tell-tale names,the common noun origin is still clearly perceived.

E.g. Shark Dodson, Mr. Cheeky.

Like the rest of tropes antonomasia can also be trite (traditional), e.g. a traitor is referred to as Brutus, and genuine (contextual), e.g. Mrs. Cross.




Metonymy (Gk. metonymia 'changing of name') is a trope based upon contiguity – upon a real connection (inward or outward) – between the object of nomination and the object whose name by way of associations is used to replace it. (Cf. with metaphor where this connection is non-existent.)

Metonymy can also be defined as a nomination of the object through one of its inherent properties.

E.g. ‘Hulloa, fatty. What do you want?’ (Maugham)

Function. Metonymy usually creates an ironic or even sarcastic effect, sometimes it serves intensification.

According to the relation between the tenor and the vehicle the following types of metonymy are differentiated:

1.the abstract stands for the concrete:

E.g. But then he did not really want any of these people, did not want company for company’s sake. What he really wanted was Love, Romance, a Wonderful Girl of His Own. And these had lately all been assuming the same shape in his mind, that of Lena Golspie. (Priestley)

2.the container is mentioned instead of the contents:

E.g. He sipped one more bottle (of whisky).

3.the material instead of the thing made of it:

E.g. She was glancing through his water colours.

4.the maker stands for the thing made:

E.g. The Rembrandt turned out to be fake.

He adores Mozart.

5.the instrument is put for the agent:

E.g. His brush can be easily recognized.

6.a part is put for the whole (synecdoche):

E.g. There were long legs all around.

Metonymy in many cases is trite.

E.g. to cite Byron, hands wanted.

Synecdoche can as well be expressed grammatically.

An example of traditional (stereotyped) synecdoche is the use of the singular (the so-called generis singularis) when the plural (the whole class) is meant.

E.g. ‘A woman can forgive a man for the harm he does her’ he said, ‘but she can never forgive him for the sacrifices he makes on her account.’ (or: The woman ...). (Maugham)

The opposite type of synecdoche (‘the whole for a part’) occurs

-when the name of the genus is used in place of the name of the species:

E.g. Stop torturing the poor animal (instead of the poor dog); or

-when the 'plural of disapprobation' is resorted to:

E.g. Reading books when I am talking to you! (while one book is meant).




Simile(Latin similis ‘similar’) is an explicit statement of partial identity (affinity, likeness, similarity) of two objects belonging to entirely different classes of things.

E.g. She felt like a shivering and bruised ant. (Priestley)

The word explicit distinguishes simile from metaphor where comparison is not stated clearly:

a) Metaphor is a renaming where a word, a phrase, a sentence, etc. is used instead of another; simile always employs two names of two separate objects.

b) Simile always contains at least one more component part – a word or a word-group signalizing the idea of juxtaposition and comparison.

The formal signals of simile are mostly:

1) link words as, like – establishing the analogy categorically.

E.g. Her arms were like legs of mutton, her breasts like giant cabbages; her face, broad and fleshy, gave you an impression of almost indecent nakedness, and vast chin succeeded to vast chin. (Maugham)

2) link words as though, as if, than– establishing but a slight similarity.

E.g. It was as though he had become aware of the soul of the universe and were compelled to express it. (Maugham)

3) lexical and morphological means that establish resemblance, such as to resemble, to remind of, in a way or verbal phrases to bear a resemblance to, to have a look of; suffixes - ish, - like, - some, -y, etc.

E.g. He reminded you of those jolly, fat merchants that Rubens painted. (Maugham)

‘I believe you’re right, Sandycroft …’ said Mr. Smeeth, with the air of a dutiful cross-talk comedian. (Priestley)

… the place where Strickland lived had the beauty of the Garden of Eden. (Maugham)

He had …a small, still babyish mouth (Priestley).

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