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EXERCISE 7. Correct the mistakes.
1 Dо they have their dogs walking every day?
2 She has the piano tune twice а year.
3 The letters are bе posted first thing tomorrow morning.
4 When Mr. Cobert arrived at the office, he realised his computer has bееn stolen.
5 The photographs will already bееn developed.
6 It's worth having the car servicing.
7 She is expects to win the November election.
8 They are having their garage painted when I called.
9 Your teeth is bе cheeked every six months.
INFINITIVE / - ING FORM / PARTICIPLES: Level B
· The Present Infinitive refers to the present or future.
I’d liketo go for a walk.
· The Present Continuous Infinitiveis used with appear, claim, happen, pretend, seem, must, can’t, should, would, etcto describe an action happening now.
He mustbe working in the garden now.
· The Perfect Infinitive is used with appear, happen, pretend, seem, etc to show that the action of the infinitive happened before the action of the verb.
He claims to have met the Queen. (First he met the Queen, then he claimed he had met her.)
It is also used with modal verbs should, would, etc.
· The Perfect Continuous Infinitive is used with appear, seem, pretend, etc to put emphasis on the duration of the action of the infinitive, which happened before the action of the verb.
She looks tired. She seems to have been working all morning.
It is also used with modal verbs.
· The Present Gerund ( - ing form) refers to the present or future.
She enjoys dancing.
· The Perfect Gerund ( - ing form) shows that the action of the gerund has happened before the action of the verb. We can use the Present Gerund instead of the Perfect Gerund without a difference in meaning.
He denied having stolen the money. OR He denied stealing the money.
The -to- infinitive is used :
1. to express purpose
She went out to buy some milk.
2. after certain verbs (advise, agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, promise, refuse, etc)
He promised to be back at 10 o clock.
3. after certain adjectives (angry, happy, glad, etc)
She was glad to see him.
4. after question words (where, how, what, who, which, BUT not after “why”)
Has she told you where to meet them?
But: I don’t know why he left so early.
5. after: would like/ would love/ would prefer (to express specific preference)
I’d love to go for a walk.
6. after nouns
It’s a pleasure to work with you.
7. after too/enough constructions
He is too short to reach the top shelf.
He isn’t tall enough to reach the top shelf.
8. with it + be + adjective (+ of + object)
It was nice of him to remember my birthday.
9. with “only” to express unsatisfactory result
He called me only to say that he would be late.
The infinitive without -to- is used:
1. after modal verbs (must, can, will etc)
You must be back at 12 o clock.
2. after: had better/ would rather
I’d rather have stayed in last night.
3. after: make/let/see/ hear/feel + object
Mum letme watch TV. I madehim apologise.
BUT: in the passive form: be made/ be heard/ be seen + to-infinitive
He was made to apologise.
Note: help is followed by a -to-infinitive or an infinitive without -to-
She helped me (to) wash the dishes.
The -ing form is used:
1. as a noun
Eating vegetables is good for your health.
2. after certain verbs: (admit (to), avoid, consider, continue, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, keep (=continue), look forward to, mention mind, miss, object to, postpone, practice, prevent, report, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, understand, etc)
He admitted (to) stealing the painting.
3. after: love, like, dislike, hate, enjoy, prefer (to express general preference)
He likes cooking(in general).
Note: like + to infinitive = it’s a good idea; it’s useful
I like to eat a healthy breakfast. (specific preference)
4. after: I’m busy, it’s no use, it’s (no) good, it’s (not) worth, what’s the use of, can’t help, there’s no point in, can’t stand, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, have difficulty (in)
It’s no use complaining.
5. after: go for physical activities
They go skiing every winter.
6. after: spend/waste time
He wasted his time playing video games.
7. after prepositions
He entered without knocking at the door.
8. after: see, hear, listen, watch to express an incomplete action, an action in progress or a long action
I saw Kate painting the kitchen. (I saw Kate in the middle of painting.)
BUT: see, hear, listen, watch + infinitive without -to- – to express a complete action, something that one saw or heard from beginning to end.
I watched Kate paint the kitchen. It took her two hours. (I saw the whole action from beginning to end.)
NOTE: If two infinitives are joined by “and”, the -to- of the second infinitive can be omitted.
I want to eat something and havea rest.
Verbs taking -to- infinitive or –ing form without a change in meaning
Verbs taking to- infinitive or –ing form with a change in meaning
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