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EXERCISE 10.Translate into English.

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Reported statements To report statements we use a reporting verb (say, tell, explain etc) followed by a that-clause. In spoken English that can be omitted. He said I feel sick. He said (that) he felt sick.
Verb tenses and time expressions change in reported speech: a) when the introductory verb is in a past tense Im moving to a new flat next week, she said She said she was moving to a new flat the following week. b) in out-of-date reporting. Mike said, I borrowed some money from my parents. (2 May) Mike said he had borrowed some money from his parents. (5 May) c) when we consider what the speaker says to be untrue. Paula and I arebest friends, Jack said to me. Jack said to me that he and Paula were best friends, but Paula had never actually met him.
Tenses Change
Present Simple Past Simple I know quite a lot of people here. He said that he knew quite a lot of people there. Present Continuous Past Continuous John is feeling much better. He said that John was feeling much better. Present Perfect Past Perfect They have seen the Eiffel Tower. He said that they had seen the Eiffel Tower. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Ive been waiting for ages. He said that he had been waiting for ages. Past Simple Past Perfect I enjoyed my holiday in Spain. He said that he had enjoyed his holiday in Spain. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Mike was working at four oclock. He said that Mike had been working at four oclock. Past Perfect Past Perfect Nobody had warned them about the storm. He said that nobody had warnedthem about the storm. Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Id been dreamingabout you. He said that he had been dreaming about me. Will Would Ill call you tomorrow. He said that he would call me the following day.
There are no changes in the verb tenses in Reported speech when the direct sentence expresses a general truth, is Conditional Type 2 or Type 3 or a wish. The earth is a planet, she said. She said the earth is a planet. (general truth) If you studied more, youd pass your test, he said. He said that if I studied more, Id passmy test. I wish I was/were rich, he said. He said he wished he was/were rich. When the introductory verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect, there are no changes in the verb tenses. Kate can write, she says. She says that Katecan write.
Time words Change / Other Changes
Direct speech Tonight, today, this week/month/year Now Yesterday, last night/week/month/year Tomorrow, next day/week Two days/months/years ago This/these Here Come Reported speech That night, that day/week/month/year Then, at that time, at once, immediately, since The day before, the previous day/week The following day/the day after/ the following/the next week/month/year Two days/weeks/months before That/those There Go
Tom is leaving tomorrow, she said. She said Tom was leaving the next day (Speech reported after Tom had left.) Bob is leaving tomorrow, she said. She said Bob is leaving tomorrow. (Speech reported before Bob has left.) (in his office) He said, Ill be hereagain on Monday.(outside the office) He said hed be there again on Monday.
Modals in Reported speech
Direct speech She said, Ill do it later. I can speak French. I cancome next Tuesday. I mayspeak to Bob. You must be back at 10.00. He mustbe a liar. You shouldtry harder. You had better phone him. How shall I do this? When shall we reach London. Reported speech She said (that) she would do it later. (that) she couldspeak French. (that) she wouldbe able to go next Tuesday. (that) she might speak to Bob. (that) I must/had to be back at 10.00.(obligation) (that) he mustbe a liar.(deduction) (that) I should try harder. that I had better phone him. She asked how she should do that.(advice) She asked when they wouldreach London.(information)
Would, could, used to, mustnt, should, might, ought to and had better remain the same.
Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions
To report commands, requests, suggestions we use an introductory verb: tell, ask, suggest, offer, advise, beg, etc followed by a to-infinitive, a not to-infinitive or an ing form according to the construction of the introductory verb.
Direct speech He said to me, Come with me. He said to me, Dont lie to me He said, Lets call the computer expert. Reported speech He asked me to go with him. He toldme not to lie to him. He suggested calling the computer expert.
Reported Questions
Reported questions are introduced with the verbs: ask, inquire, wonder / want to know. The verb tenses, pronouns and time expressions change as in statements.
Direct questions with a question word Why do you want to leave your job? Direct questions with an auxiliary Do you like jazz? Reported questions He asked me why I wantedto leave my job. He asked me if/whether I liked jazz.
Reporting a dialogue or a conversation
In conversation we use a mixture of statements, commands and questions. When we turn them into Reported speech we use: and, as, adding that, and he/she added that, explaining that because, but, since, and then he/she went on to say, while, then etc or the introductory verb in present participle form. Words and expressions such as Oh, Oh dear, Well etc are omitted in Reported speech.
Direct speech Oh, this is a very nice dress, she said. How much does it cost? I cant buy it, she said. I cant afford it. Reported speech She remarked/exclaimed that that was a very nice dress andshe askedhow much it cost. Then she added thatshe couldnt buy it, explaining that she couldnt afford it.
Introductory verbs
+ to-infinitive Agree, claim, demand, offer, promise, refuse, threaten Yes, Ill drive you home. He agreed to drive me home. Ive won $ 1,000,000. He claimed to have won $ 1,000,000.
+ sb + to-infinitive Advise, ask, beg, command, encourage, forbid, invite, order, remind, warn You should eat less junk food. He advised me to eat less junk food. Please, please dont hurt me. He begged me not to hurt him.
+ -ing form Accuse smb of, admit to, apologise for, boast about/of, complain (to smb) of, deny, insist on, suggest Im sorry I broke your mug. He apologised for breaking my mug.. No, I didnt use your keys. He denied using/having used my keys.  
+ that-clause Explain, inform smb I liked his latest film because it was exciting. She explained that she liked his latest film because it was exciting. The manager will be back at noon. He informed us that the manager would be back at noon.


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