1. ’отелось бы, чтобы люди были более дружелюбными. 2. ∆аль, что люди так напр€жены. 3. ’орошо бы он позвонил мне вечером. 4. Ќапрасно € позвонила ему первой. 5. «р€ € научилась работать на компьютере. Ёто как наркотик. 6. ’отелось бы, чтобы этот психолог не испытывал свои методы на моем ребенке. 7. Ќапрасно € не прин€л это лекарство от головной боли. 8. ∆аль, что Ќина не всегда искренна со мной. 9. Ќапрасно вы были так откровенны. ¬едь он наш конкурент. 10. ак жаль, что она не умеет петь. 11. я бы хотела, чтобы мой день рождени€ длилс€ и длилс€, и чтобы € всегда была также счастлива! 12. ∆аль, что он не смог предупредить нас, что это дело очень рискованное.
REPORTED SPEECH: Level B
To report statements we use a reporting verb (say, tell, explain etc) followed by a that-clause. In spoken English that can be omitted. He said УI feel sick.Ф He said (that) he felt sick.
Verb tenses and time expressions change in reported speech:
a) when the introductory verb is in a past tense
УIТm moving to a new flat next week,Ф she said Ц She said she was moving to a new flat the following week.
b) in out-of-date reporting.
Mike said, УI borrowed some money from my parents.Ф (2 May) Ц Mike said he had borrowed some money from his parents. (5 May)
c) when we consider what the speaker says to be untrue.
УPaula and I arebest friends,Ф Jack said to me. Ц Jack said to me that he and Paula were best friends, but Paula had never actually met him.
Present Simple Ѓ Past Simple
УI know quite a lot of people hereФ. Ѓ He said that he knew quite a lot of people there.
Present Continuous Ѓ Past Continuous
УJohn is feeling much better.Ф Ѓ He said that John was feeling much better.
Present Perfect Ѓ Past Perfect
УThey have seen the Eiffel Tower.Ф Ѓ He said that they had seen the Eiffel Tower.
Present Perfect Continuous Ѓ Past Perfect Continuous
УIТve been waiting for ages.Ф Ѓ He said that he had been waiting for ages.
Past Simple Ѓ Past Perfect
УI enjoyed my holiday in Spain.Ф Ѓ He said that he had enjoyed his holiday in Spain.
Past Continuous Ѓ Past Perfect Continuous
УMike was working at four oТclock.Ф Ѓ He said that Mike had been working at four oТclock.
Past Perfect Ѓ Past Perfect
УNobody had warned them about the storm.Ф Ѓ He said that nobody had warnedthem about the storm.
Past Perfect Continuous Ѓ Past Perfect Continuous
УIТd been dreamingabout you.Ф Ѓ He said that he had been dreaming about me.
Will Ѓ Would
УIТll call you tomorrow.Ф Ѓ He said that he would call me the following day.
There are no changes in the verb tenses in Reported speech when the direct sentence expresses a general truth, is Conditional Type 2 or Type 3 or a wish.
УThe earth is a planet,Ф she said. Ц She said the earth is a planet. (general truth)УIf you studied more, youТd pass your test, he said.Ф Ц He said that if I studied more, IТd passmy test.УI wish I was/were rich,Ф he said. Ц He said he wished he was/were rich.
When the introductory verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect, there are no changes in the verb tenses.
УKate can write,Ф she says. Ц She says that Katecan write.
Time words Change / Other Changes
Tonight, today, this week/month/yearNowYesterday, last night/week/month/yearTomorrow, next day/week Two days/months/years agoThis/these HereCome
That night, that day/week/month/yearThen, at that time, at once, immediately, sinceThe day before, the previous day/weekThe following day/the day after/ the following/the next week/month/yearTwo days/weeks/months beforeThat/thoseThereGo
УTom is leaving tomorrow,Ф she said. She said Tom was leaving the next day (Speech reported after Tom had left.)УBob is leaving tomorrow,Ф she said. She said Bob is leaving tomorrow. (Speech reported before Bob has left.)
(in his office) He said, УIТll be hereagain on Monday.Ф(outside the office) He said heТd be there again on Monday.
Modals in Reported speech
УIТll do it later.ФУI can speak French.ФУI cancome next Tuesday.ФУI mayspeak to Bob.ФУYou must be back at 10.00.ФУHe mustbe a liar.ФУYou shouldtry harder.ФУYou had better phone him.ФУHow shall I do this?ФУWhen shall we reach London.Ф
(that) she would do it later.(that) she couldspeak French.(that) she wouldbe able to go next Tuesday.(that) she might speak to Bob.(that) I must/had to be back at 10.00.(obligation)(that) he mustbe a liar.(deduction)(that) I should try harder.that I had better phone him.She asked how she should do that.(advice)She asked when they wouldreach London.(information)
Would, could, used to, mustnТt, should, might, ought to and had better remain the same.
To report commands, requests, suggestions we use an introductory verb: tell, ask, suggest, offer, advise, beg, etc followed by a to-infinitive, a not to-infinitive or an Цing form according to the construction of the introductory verb.
He said to me, УCome with me.ФHe said to me, УDonТt lie to meФHe said, УLetТs call the computer expert.Ф
He asked me to go with him.He toldme not to lie to him.He suggested calling the computer expert.
Reported questions are introduced with the verbs: ask, inquire, wonder / want to know. The verb tenses, pronouns and time expressions change as in statements.
Direct questions with a question word
УWhy do you want to leave your job?Ф
Direct questions with an auxiliary
УDo you like jazz?Ф
He asked me why I wantedto leave my job.He asked me if/whether I liked jazz.
Reporting a dialogue or a conversation
In conversation we use a mixture of statements, commands and questions. When we turn them into Reported speech we use: and, as, adding that, and he/she added that, explaining that because, but, since, and then he/she went on to say, while, then etc or the introductory verb in present participle form. Words and expressions such as Oh, Oh dear, Well etc are omitted in Reported speech.
УOh, this is a very nice dress,Ф she said. УHow much does it cost?Ф УI canТt buy it, she said. УI canТt afford it.Ф
She remarked/exclaimed that that was a very nice dress andshe askedhow much it cost. Then she added thatshe couldnТt buy it, explaining that she couldnТt afford it.
Agree, claim, demand, offer, promise, refuse, threaten
УYes, IТll drive you home.Ф Ц He agreed to drive me home.УIТve won $ 1,000,000.Ф Ц He claimed to have won $ 1,000,000.
+ sb + to-infinitive
Advise, ask, beg, command, encourage, forbid, invite, order, remind, warn
УYou should eat less junk food.Ф Ц He advised me to eat less junk food.УPlease, please donТt hurt me.Ф Ц He begged me not to hurt him.
+ -ing form
Accuse smb of, admit to, apologise for, boast about/of, complain (to smb) of, deny, insist on, suggest
УIТm sorry I broke your mug.Ф Ц He apologised for breaking my mug..УNo, I didnТt use your keys.Ф Ц He denied using/having used my keys.
Explain, inform smb
УI liked his latest film because it was exciting.Ф Ц She explained that she liked his latest film because it was exciting.УThe manager will be back at noon.Ф Ц He informed us that the manager would be back at noon.