ТОР 5 статей:
КОНТРОЛЬНА РОБОТА № 9. І. Вставте артиклі a / an, the де необхідно.
І. Вставте артиклі a / an, the де необхідно.
1. Kate is _____ teacher. Her parents were _____ teachers too.
2. _____ Chemistry was my favorite subject at _____ school.
3. There is _____ concert hall not far from our house. _____ concert hall is _____ largest in our city.
4. My friends are planning _____ holiday together.
5. When I was _____ child I used to collect _____ stamps.
6. You need _____ visa to visit _____ Great Britain.
7. There was _____ lot of snow on _____ ground.
8. How well can _____ cat see in _____ dark?
9. I love _____ flowers. He bought me _____ few flowers.
10. Does Helen speak _____ French?
11. This cloth costs ten pounds _____ meter.
12. She doesn’t want to go to _____ hairdresser’s again.
13. – Where’s Tom? He’s in _____ dean’s office.
14. When did you see him _____ last?
15. She was _____ last to be invited to the office.
II. Виберіть правильний варіант, зверніть увагу на вживання артиклю.
1. We’d love to travel down _____ .
A. Volga B. the Volga
2. _____ consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
A. United Kingdom B. the United Kingdom
3. Our hotel was not far from _____ .
A. Hyde Park B. the Hyde Park
4. _____ is in _____ .
A. The lake Baikal A. Siberia B. Lake Baikal B. the Siberia
5. _____ is a world language.
A. English B. The English
6._____ don’t eat with knives and forks, they use chopsticks.
A. Japanese B. The Japanese
7. The ocean between America and Asia is _____ .
A. Pacific B. the Pacific
8. We were invited by _____ .
A. Fergusons B. the Fergusons
ІІІ. Перекладіть українською мовою
1. За столом ми ніколи не розмовляємо.
2. Я зрозумів це з першого погляду.
3. Вона читає цю книжку в оригіналі.
4. Текст на переклад був дуже важкий для студентів.
5. Це дуже просте запитання. І навіть дитина може відповісти на нього.
6. Рояль – мій улюблений музичний інструмент.
IV. Прочитайте та письмово перекладіть 1, 3 абзаци тексту
Dye is any substance, natural or synthetic, used to color various materials, especially textiles, leather, and food. Natural dyes are so called because they are obtained from plants, from animals, and from certain naturally occurring minerals. They have been almost entirely replaced in modern dyeing by synthetic dyes. Most of these are prepared from coal tar, being formed from an aromatic hydrocarbon such as benzene, from which indigo is derived, or anthracene, which yields alizarin.
Although some materials, e.g., silk and wool, can be colored simply by being dipped in the dye (the dyes so used are consequently called direct dyes), others, including cotton, commonly require the use of a mordant. Alizarin is a mordant dye and the color it gives depends upon the mordant used.
Dyes are classified also as acidic or basic according to the medium required in the dyeing process. A vat dye, e.g., indigo, is so called from the method of its application; it is first treated chemically so that it becomes soluble and is then used for coloring materials bathed in a vat. When the materials become impregnated with the dye, they are removed and dried in air, the indigo reverting to its original, insoluble form. The process by which a dye becomes "attached" to the material it colors is not definitely known.
One theory holds that a chemical reaction takes place between the dye and the treated fiber; another proposes that the dye is absorbed by the fiber. Dyeing is an ancient industry. The Chinese, Persians, and Indians used natural dyes many centuries ago, including indigo, probably the oldest dye in use, and Tyrian purple, derived from a species of snail. The Egyptians prepared some brilliant colors. In the 13th and 14th century dyeing assumed importance in Italy; the methods employed were carried to other parts of Europe and, as new dyes became known, the dyeing industry flourished and grew. Cochineal was introduced from Mexico. Finally, in the 19th century the work of W.H.Perkin and Adolf von Baeyer produced the first synthetic dyes.
ЗАВДАННЯ ДО ТЕКСТУ
І. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
1. Why are natural dyes called so?
2. Which substances have they been almost entirely replaced by?
3. What yields alizarin?
4. Which materials require the use of a mordant?
5. How are dyes classified?
6. Why is indigo called a vat dye?
7. When are materials removed and dried in air?
8. What do theories say about the chemical process that takes place between the dye and the treated fiber?
9. What was Tyrian purple derived from?
10. In what centuries did the dyeing industry flourish and grow?
ІІ. Складіть власні речення із поданими виразами:
the use of
flourish and grow
IІІ. Перекладіть на українську мову подані нижче речення:
1. Dye is any natural substance, used to color various materials.
2. Most of synthetic dyes are prepared from coal tar.
3. Some materials such as cotton and leather can be colored simply by being dipped in the dye.
4. The color alizarin gives depends upon the mordant used.
5. A vat dye is so called from the method of its application.
6. When the materials become impregnated with the dye, they are removed and dried in special ovens.
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