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Classification of syntactical stylistic devices. Repetition, represented speech

Group 1. Pattern of syntactical arrangement: inversion, detachment, parallelism, chiasmus, repetition, enumeration, suspense, climax, antithesis.

Group 2. Peculiar linkage: asyndeton, polysyndeton, gap sentence link.

Group 3. Colloquial constructions: ellipsis, aposiopesis, q-n in the narrative, represented speech.

Group 4. Stylistic use of structural meaning: rhetorical q-n, litotes.

Repetition – is aimed at giving logical emphasis and fixing attention to the key word.


1) ordinary repetition (repeated unit doesn’t have a fixed place in the sentence);

2) anaphora (initial position of repeated unit at the beginning; the aim is to make the word more memorable, to increase the sound harmony);

3) epiphora (at the end of a s-ce);

4) framing (beginig+end);

5) anadiplosis (end of a previous part and beginning of the next);

6) chain repetition (succession of several anadiplosises);

7) root repetition (the root is repeated).

Syntactical tautology – implies repetition of the noun subject in the form of corresponding personal pronoun.

Represented speech – reproduces the spoken words or thoughts of a character almost directly by still within the author’s speech. It represents the words and inner thoughts more vividly and emotionally than indirect speech.

May be of 2 types: 1) uttered; 2) unuttered.

May be marked by certain grammatical features:

- the change of a tense form from Present to Past;

- the change of pronoun from their 1st and 2nd to their 3rd;

- a peculiar choice of vocabulary;

- the syntactical structure of the utterance doesn’t change.


1) allows the writer in a condensed and objective manner to lead the reader into the inner word of human mind.

2) to render the char’s words, which are not spoken allowed;

3) to reveal speaker’s psychology or temporary mental state.


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