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Genuine, trite metaphors

According to the degree of originality:

Genuine (authentic, 'living').They are original, full of imagery, and therefore are treated as SD’s proper. Trite (etymological, dead, traditional, stereotyped, hackneyed, dictionary).They are fixed in dictionaries clichés with faded imagery. Thus, they are viewed as expressive means of the language. E.g. a foot of a mountain, a mouth of a river, a root of the quarrel. Having become standardised through overuse, metaphors may also exist as idioms.

Today they have a literal meaning that differs from their original literal meaning because they have passed through a metaphorical stage. (to add fuel to the fire/flames).

Metaphor is also a common lingual means of occasional denomination that provides us with a means of explaining the unknown in terms of the known. Similarity on which metaphorical renaming is based may concern any property of the thing meant. It may be colour, form, character of motion, speed, value or anything else that shows a resemblance.

Personification is a variety of metaphor in which human properties are attributed to lifeless (or inanimate) objects — mostly to abstract notions (thoughts, actions, emotions,

seasons of the year, etc.).

The formal indication of personification may be: capitalising, the use of pronouns he or she instead of it, the use of verbs and adjectives that originally stand for the actions and qualities of people (fat arm-chair)

Function. Personification adds dramatic power to the description, it expresses the author's vision of the (possible) world, or reflects the attitude of the characters to the things described.

Zoonimic (animalistic) metaphors are the opposite of personification. It is the ascription of the traits of beasts to people, usually with the intention of negative characterization or creating humor.



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