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SYNTACTICAL DEVICES BASED ON PECULIAR ARRANGEMENT. Lexico-Syntactical Repetition is a regular recurrence of a lexical unit, sometimes in close succession

Lexico-Syntactical Repetition is a regular recurrence of a lexical unit, sometimes in close succession. It can be viewed as an expressive means of the language used to make an emotional impact and intensify the feelings. Besides, it ascribes rhythm to the utterance; at times it shows the monotony or continuity of action.In lexico-syntactical repetitions, unlike in purely syntactical repetitions (parallelism or chiasmus), where the lexical identity of certain parts of neighbouring sentences is optional, the recurrence of the same lexical units is quite obligatory. Compositionally lexico-syntactical repetition falls into:

1.Simple Repetition 2.Anaphora (a…, a…)

Function. Anaphoric recurrence strengthens the element that recurs, helps the reader (hearer) fix it in his memory. It also imparts a certain rhythmical regularity to the syntactical units in question.

3.Epiphora (… a, … a)

Function. Epiphora, to a still greater extent than anaphora, regularizes the rhythm of the text and makes prose resemble poetry.

A combination of anaphora and epiphora in two or more adjacent units is sometimes termed symploca.

4.Framing (a …a)

Function. Framing makes the whole utterance more compact and more complete. It is most effective in singling out paragraphs.

5.Anadiplosis (linking, reduplication, catch repetition) (… a, a…)

6.Chain Repetition (…a, a… b, b …)

It is the sequence of several anadiploses.

There also exists synonymic repetition.

The two terms frequently used to group all kinds of synonymic repetitions are pleonasm and tautology. Pleonasm -the use of more words in a sentence than are necessary to express the meaning; redundancy of expression.There is a variety of tautology called root-repetition. In it not the same words but the same root that is repeated(a brutish brute)

Enumeration. In enumeration separate things, properties, actions and phenomena are brought together in the manner that they make a series of grammatically and semantically homogeneous parts of utterance.

The enumerated notions are usu. associated with each other due to some kind of relation between them: dependence, cause and result, likeness, dissimilarity, sequence, experience.

Enumeration attracts attention by the resultant rhythm and sometimes creates the atmosphere of tension.Though, enumeration becomes a stylistic device proper when the effect of semantic homogeneity of heterogeneous words, i.e. words belonging to different semantic fields and groups, is produced.This kind of chaotic distribution performs an evident stylistic function as it causes a striking effect.

Suspense is based on the delay of the most important information. As a result, the less important facts and subordinate details appear first, while the most significant idea is withheld till the end of the syntactical unit.

Suspense is often created by the insertion of a subordinate clause (or a parenthetic remark) between the members of the principal clause.

Sentences with suspense are called periodic sentences, or periods. Their function is to keep the reader in a state of uncertainty, expectation and interest.

Climax and gradation are two synonymous terms that denote such an arrangement of correlative ideas or notions in which what precedes is less than what follows. The correlative notions in climax belong to the same semantic plane and are often called ‘ideographic synonyms’.

In climax the participating words, phrases, sentences form the ‘ascent’, or an ‘ascending scale’.In logical climax every consecutive word is stronger from the logical point of view. In emotional climax the emotive intensity is implied. Quantitative climax is based on the intensification of quantitative parametres.

a) In logical climax every consecutive word is stronger from the logical point of view. E.g. He looked about him, as if searching the little room in despair for something to touch, to hold, to cling to … (Priestley)

b) In emotional climax the emotive intensity is implied. E.g. After a short silence, an unusual sound, a most strange sound, a fantastic and incredible sound, came from the side of the bed and travelled round the dark little room. (Priestley)

c) Quantitative climax is based on the intensification of quantitative parametres. E.g. Mary counted the months, the weeks, the days, the hours to his return.

As is seen from examples, climax is usu. materialized in enumeration.

Climax and suspense sometimes go together. In this case all the information contained in the series of statements preceding the solution are arranged in the order of gradation.

E.g. ‘If’ by R. Kipling.

The stylistic function of climax is to disclose the emotional tension of the character, to impress upon the reader the significance of the things described by suggested comparison, or to depict phenomena dynamically.

In literary studies climax as a term has got a different meaning: that of a crucial moment of narration. In this case its Russian equivalent is кульминация.

Anti-climax (back-gradation) consists in the abrupt descent, which frequently contrasts with the previous rise. This ruins the elevated tenor and brings down the whole idea. That is why anti­climax is frequently used by humorists.

The Russian for it is спад.

E.g. She was distressed, sore, inconsolable – for the afternoon.



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