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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

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Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы



Galperin: FS- a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. FSs are products of concrete social tasks set out by the lng community.

Arnold: specifity of each style is predetermined by the specifity of functions carried out by lng in a particular sphere of communication.

Karasik: a variety of discourse singled out on the basis of the communicative distance, degree of self-expression, lng clichés.

The term comes right from the consideration of such notions as function (the purpose or aim of communication), sphere of communication and norm in their relation to speech varieties and their classification.

Today functional stylistics faces a number of problems that have no definite and final solutions. Here belong 1)the discrimination btw the approaches to the study of speech varieties by functional stylistics and discourse analysis; 2)the basic criteria for the separation of FSs; 3)the systematization (classification) of FSs, 4)the possibility of isolation as FS the colloquial variety and imaginative literature.

One should not confuse the notion of FS with the notion of individual style (IS).IS presupposes a deliberate, though often intuitional choice of lng means. It is normally applied to a writer's individual manner of using lng means to achieve the effect he desires. (Shakespeare's style, Faulkner's style)

But IS is not the speech of an individual that is called idiolect. It is habitual idiosyncrasy in the use of lng that is typical of any individual.




Acc to Galperin, oratory and speeches make an oral subdivision of the publicist style.

Persuasion, or the brain washing function, is the most obvious purpose of oratory.

3 grades of oratory: 1)lowest gr: aimes at & pleasing the audience (inaugural speech); 2)higher gr: not only pleasing but informing, instructing, persuading. 3) gr: greatly influencing, convincing, arousing interest, the orator leads the audience to act in accordance with the expressed cause.

For this the most powerful instrument of persuasion, the human voice, is brought into play. Not infrequently the speaker uses gestures.

Its major traits are: 1)Phonographic: the change of intonation (it breaks the monotony of the intonation pattern, revives the attention of the listeners, conveys the shades of meaning, overtones and emotions); rhyme, alliteration, assonance, rhythm (to reinforce the other SD); typographic techniques (italics, in capital letters, spacing out, bold type).

2)Lexical: elevated and bookish words; colloquial wds (to make the speech less formal); metaphor, allusion, irony; emotive wds,; ready-made phrases or clichés;

3)Syntactical: the use of repetitions (to keep in focus the object of thought, to persuade the audience, to add weight to speaker’s opinion); climax, suspense, antithesis, parallelism, frequent use of rhetorical ? & interrogatives (which promote a closer contact with the audience, revive & keep attention), direct address (special obligatory forms open up and end an oration, My Lords; Mr. President;; Ladies and Gentlemen; at the end of his speech the speaker usu thanks the audience for their attention)

4)Morphological: the use of the 1st person pronouns I, we; the use of the 2nd and 3rd person pronouns you and they in the generalizing function; contractions;



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