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TEXT(T) ST-CS. TYPES OF INFORMATION. BASIC TEXTUAL SEGMENTS. T CATEGORIES.




T st-cs aims at investigating the most effective ways & means of producing Ts belonging to diff styles, substyles, genres. T, as a completed product of speech, represents a sequence of wds, grammatically connected & semantically coherent, & having a certain communicative goal. St-c analysis of a concrete T should lead to a clear & profound understanding of its content. St-cally significant seem to be the problems related to the types of info imparted by diff Ts, the problem of T categories & the problem of textual segments.

According to Galperin, there are 3 types of content inf: factual, conceptual, subtextual.

1)Factual inf is associated with data about people, things, events. It is always explicit. It is supposed to be logical & objective by character. 2)Conceptual inf reflects the author’s individual understanding of the relationship among the people, things, events described (for e.g. their cause-effect links). This sort of logical inf is inferred (подразумеваемый) => various interpretations are possible. It is derived from the T by the reader himself => subjective. 3)Subtextual inf – kind of implicit inf stylistic by its nature. This additional inf can appear in the T as a result of interaction & simultaneous realization of diff types of lex & structural mngs.

Aesthetic inf (t belonging to the belles-letters style) is created on the basis of all 3 types of content inf. Objective aes inf- part of general semantic inf of a particular T. Subjective aes inf- is embodied in connotative & emotive stylistic means of the T which contribute to its implicit content.

T categories: 1) Content cat-s (characterize the T in terms of its semantics & pragmatics):informality, modality, expressi-veness, emotiveness, accentuation, intertextuality. 2) Structural catdo not deal with the ontological aspect of the T & are represented by cohesion, integrity, completeness.

Informality-T cat embracing multi-channel logical & st-c inf which aims at developing the author’s ideas about the things & processes reflected in the T. Modality- manifestation of the author’s attitude to the phenomena described. Expressiveness can be traced on diff lng levels & is realized through imaginary, transposition, breaking normative valency of wd, inclusion of dialectical wds& borrowings. Emotivness is realized through st-c means that reveal the emotions of an author, evokes response of the reader. Accentuation aims at giving semantic prominence to a certain piece of factual inf or laving special emphasis on the most imp elements of conceptual inf.(explicit connectives, parenthetic wds, intensifiers, st-c repetition, parallelism).Intertextuality is closely connected with the notion of subtext & understanding the T itself as the dialogue going on btw the author & the reader during the process of their communication. subtext can be created by allusions, citations.

Cohesion is associated with logically consistent development of the main theme (realized by connectors(&, but), transitions( & then, again), pronouns(this, that), lexical& synonymic repetitions, developed antithesis, sustained metaphor, parallel constructions). Completeness of the T can be understood as the result of the integrity of its constituent units.

Some scientists say that the basic textual segment is a supra-phrasal unit. It is a number of sent-s structurally & semantically interconnected that expresses only one definite thought & can be extracted from the context withought losing a relative semantic independence of its own. They often coincide with paragraphs. => some scientists think they are the basic textual segment. Most par consist of 2 parts: 1)the thesis usu contained in the topic, or key sentence; 2) the supporting details revolving around the main idea & expanding on it.

Structural pattern of par: 1)deductive- greatest imp at the top of the par; 2)inductive- generalizing at the bottom; 3)deductive-inductive -2 key sent ( 1 initiating the par, the other concluding). Acc to the basic types of speech par : par-narration, par-description, par-reasoning.

 

 







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