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The notion of harmony, euphony, rhythm and some other sound phenomena contribute to some general acoustic sound.

Onomatopoeia (звукоподражание) - is a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature. E.g.: hiss, grumble, sizzle, murmur, bump.wind, sea, thunder,by things like machines tools,by people (laughter, cough),by animal.

There exist: 1) Direct onomatopoeia: in words that imitate natural sound (ding-dong, buzz, hiss, roar, ping-pong, mew, cock-a-doodle-doo)2) Indirect: a combination of sounds, the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense (And the silken sat uncertain, rusting of each purple curtain). Poetry abounds in some specif. devices of sound instrument. The most frequent of them are: Alliteration – the repetition of the same construction at the beginning of words.It’s often used in newspaper headlines, proverbs, set expressions. (As blind as bat; Pride and prejudice. Sense and sensibility. The school of scandal. Silken set uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain.) The Assonance – the repetition of similar vowels usually in stressed syllables. (Nor soul flesh now more than flesh helps soul).They both produce the effect of euphony (афония) – a sense of ease and comfort, a pleasing effect of pronouncing and hearing.

The opposite process is cacophony – a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing and hearing. Rhyme – one of the properties of poetry, which is the repetition of the same sound, identical/similar, usually at the end

of 2 or more lines. We normally distinguish b/n: full rhyme (I-sky, night-right), incomplete rhyme (fresh-press), compound rhymes, eye-rhymes (visible, but not pronounced): (love-prove), masculine rhymes (monosyllabic words): e.g. down-town, feminine rhyme (words are accented on the last but one syllable: error-terror)

1.The rhyming patterns are shown with the help of letters, e.g. couplets. When the last word of the 2 successive lines are rhymea: a a b b

2.Triple (dactylic) rhymes: a a a, based on 3-syllable words. 1 syllable stressed, 2 unstressed

3.There exist cross (quatrain) rhymes: a b a b

4.framing (rheme) rhymes: abba – frame

5.internal rhyme: the rhyming word is placed not at the end of the line, but within rhymes.

Functions of rhyme:1) to signalize the end of line and mark the arrangement of lines into stanzas (4ростишие) 2) rhythm becomes evident because of rhyme3) the ends receive greater prominent

Poetic rhythm – r. is created by the regular recurrence of (un)stressed syllables of equal poetic lines. The regular alterations of (un)stressed syllables from a unit which is a foot.

There are 5 basic metrical feet:1) iambus (ямб): the 2nd syllable is stressed (The flower / that smiles / today / tomorrow / dies.),2) Trochee (хорей): every first syllable of the two is stressed. (Who shall that fortune 3) dactyl (дактиль): the 1st of the 3 is stressed.4) amphibrach (амфибрахий): the middle of the 3 is stressed.5) anapaest (анапест): the last of the 3 is stressed (There is guilt in the sound, there’s guilt in …).



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