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The consumer-oriented model.

The four Cs classification was proposed by Robert F. Lauterborn in 1993. It is a more consumer-oriented version of the four Ps that attempts to better fit the movement from mass marketing to niche marketing:

The product part of the Four Ps model is replaced by consumer or consumer models, shifting the focus to satisfying the consumer.

Product is replaced by Customer: The marketers have to study consumer wants and needs and then attract consumers one by one with something each one wants.It is to create a custom solution rather than pigeon-holing a customer into a product.

Pricing is replaced by cost, reflecting the reality of the total cost of ownership. Many factors affect cost, including the customers cost to change or implement the new product or service and the customers cost for not selecting a competitors capability. But pricing is not limited to all these factors. The marketer has to realize that price - measured in dollars - is one part of the cost to satisfy. If you sell hamburgers, for example, you have to consider the cost of driving to your restaurant, the cost of conscience of eating meat, etc.

Place is replaced by the convenience function. With the rise of the Internet and hybrid models of purchasing, place is no longer relevant. Convenience takes into account the ease to buy a product, find a product, find information about a product, and several other considerations. Marketers have to know how each subset of the market prefers to buy - on the Internet, from a catalogue, on the phone, using credit cards, etc.

Promotions feature is replaced by communication. Communication represents a broader focus than simply promotions. Communication can include advertising, public relations, personal selling, viral advertising, and any form of communication between the firm and the consumer. Be creative and you can make any advertising "interactive".

Later some new ways of thinking about marketing were supplemented - 4As and 4Os. The Ps, Cs, As and Os can be combined when looking at the marketing mix.

4Ps 4Cs 4As 40s
Product Customer needs What does the customer need to solve a problem? For example, people don't have time to cook - we offer the solution of frozen dinners. The company must identify customer needs so that products that meet these needs can be developed Acceptability How acceptable is the product, and do people approve of the product? Is it socially acceptable, fashionable and attractive? Does the product respect the laws of the country - is it legally acceptable? Objects What do you sell? How is it manufactured, or made? Is it a high quality (or excellent) product, or is it bottom end?
Price Cost to user Does the customer perceive the cost of the product as fair, or is it too expensive? Affordability Does the customer have enough money to buy the product - can he / she afford the product? Objectives Revenue objectives concern the income you want to generate. Price objectives concern the price you want to sell at.
Place Convenience How convenient is it to find your product? Is it easy, or does the customer have to make an effort? Accessibility Is the product easy to access? Is the product accessible for people with disabilities? Organization How should you organize the sale and distribution of your product? Which distribution methods will work best?
Promotion Communication How should you communicate with your customers? Awareness How many people know about, or are aware of, the product? Is awareness high? Operations Which kind of promotional operations, such as direct mail, will work best for the product?



AIDA is an acronym which represents the steps a marketer takes in order to persuade customers to buy a product or service.

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