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The active vocabulary of the Unit.

to differentiate from to maintain a brand visual signifiers
competitive set to purport to be knowledgeableabout
brand values responsiveness heritage
fixed asset market intelligence trustworthy
to originate to meet the objectives dependable
advent consistent brand behaviour integrity
shipping brand recognition vibrant
insignia positive sentiment accessible
to be engaged in to be explicitly exposed to diverse
to align expectations   inclusive


Read the text and find the answers to the questions provided after the text.


Text A


Most companies decide to brand their products or services by using a name, a symbol or a design to identify it and differentiate it from the competitive set - that is, rival brands. Consumers can easily recognize the brand and the brand values - what it stands for.

A brand name is the name given to a product or a range of products - goods of a similar type that are marketed together. This may be the same name as the company (for example, Coca-Cola) or it may be a different name (for example, Apple's iPod). The trademark is the legal protection for the brand, its logo and its brand name. A successful brand is the most valuable fixed asset of a Corporation.

Brand elements

Brands typically are made up of various elements, such as:

· Name: The word or words used to identify a company, product, service, or concept.

· Logo: The visual trademark that identifies the brand.

· Tagline or Catchphrase: "be INSPIRED" is associated with RESERVED (clothes for the youth). "GO FURTHER" is an important part of the Ford brand.

· Graphics: The dynamic ribbon is a trademarked part of Coca-Cola's brand.

· Shapes: The distinctive shapes of the Coca-Cola bottle and of the Volkswagen Beetle are trademarked elements of those brands.

· Colors: Owens-Corning is the only brand of fiberglass insulation that can be pink.

· Sounds: A unique tune or set of notes can denote a brand. NBC's chimes are a famous example (NBC – National Broadcasting Company).

· Scents: The rose-jasmine-musk scent of Chanel No. 5 is trademarked.

· Tastes: Kentucky Fried Chicken has trademarked its special recipe of eleven herbs and spices for fried chicken.

· Movements: Lamborghini has trademarked the upward motion of its car doors.

Coca-Cola logo


The oldest generic Brand or no brand, which has been in continuous use in India since the Vedic period (ca. 1100 B.C. to 500 B.C.), is known as 'Chyawanprash', an herbal paste consumed for its purported health benefits.

The Italians were among the first to use brands, in the form of watermarks on paper in the 1200s.

Although connected with the history of trademarks, brands in the field of mass-marketing originated in the 19th century with the advent of packaged goods. Industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, extending the meaning of "brand" to that of trademark.

People engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. A brand manager is responsible for branding - creating, maintaining and building a brand. Orientation of the whole organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. The brand orientation is developed in responsiveness to market intelligence.

Proper branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but on other products associated with that brand. For example, if a customer loves Pillsbury biscuits and trusts the brand, he or she is more likely to try other products offered by the company such as chocolate chip cookies

Brand management, the application of marketing techniques to a brand, was first used by Proctor and Gamble in the 1930s. The brand strategy shows how the brand will meet its objectives. It influences the overall business strategy of a company to ensure consistent brand behaviour, meaning what the brand does and how it acts in all advertising media, and consistent brand experience - the exposure and interaction a consumer has with the brand

Careful brand management seeks to make the product or services relevant to the target audience. Brands should be seen as more than the difference between the actual cost of a product and its selling price - they represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer.

A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. Brand recognition is most successful when people can state a brand without being explicitly exposed to the company's name, but rather through visual signifiers like logos, slogans, and colors.

Consumers may look on branding as an aspect of products or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic. From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services also command higher prices.

Brand awareness

Brand awareness refers to customers' ability to recall and recognize the brand under different conditions and link to the brand name, logo, jingles and so on to certain associations in memory. It consists of both brand recognition and brand recall. It helps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particular brand belongs and what products and services are sold under the brand name. It also ensures that customers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through its products (Keller). Brand awareness is of critical importance since customers will not consider your brand if they are not aware of it.

Notes : 'Chyawanprash' – ’Чаванпраш’

1. How do companies brand their products?

2. What is a brand name?

3. What does the trademark mean for the brand?

4. What are the main brand elements?

5. What is the oldest generic brand? What does it produce?

6. When and under what circumstances did mass-marketing originate?

7. What is brand management?

8. What does proper branding result in?

9. What does brand strategy cover?

10. What is total branding?

11. What do brands usually represent?

12. What does a brand which is widely known require? What example can you give?


2. Consider the terms with 'brand'. Learn them and their definitions.

the brand image How the consumers see the brand: the values they associate with it.
the brand essence One core concept which defines the brand. It is normally expressed in a short phrase or just one word. A good example is 'Volvo equals safety'.
the brand promise The explicit promise the organization makes to its target audiences, including employees, about the quality and use of the brand.
the brand vision The brand vision communicates where the brand is and where the brand can go. It talks about the values the brand has today and the values it will need in the future, as well as the communication tools needed to achieve this.

3. Match the following terms with 'brand' to their definitions.

1) a premium brand a) two brands working together to create a new product - for example, Intel Corporation and Apple Computers Inc.;
2) an economy brand b) the brand for which a business is best known, and which represents its image most appropriately;
3) an own brand c)a high quality brand, more expensive than its competitors;
4) a brand leader d) a brand that is cheaper than its competitors;  
5) a no brand   e) a product that doesn't have a brand associated with it; also known as a generic brand;
6) the flagship brand f) the best-selling brand in a particular market  
7) co-branding   g) a brand that is made exclusively for the retailer that sells it; also known as an own-label brand or a private label brand

4. Consider more word combinations with ’brand’. Learn the word combinations and their definitions.

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