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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

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Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы


The Future Perfect Tense. Exercise№1. What do these people hope they will have done by the time they are thirty years old?

The Future Perfect Tense Form: will have + V3 Tom will have written a letter. Will Tom have written a letter? Tom won’t have written a letter. Usage: действие, которое совершится к определенному моменту в будущем. They will have finished their meeting by four o’clock this afternoon. Time expressions:by, by the time, until, before, etc. Обратите внимание, после этих слов не употребляется будущее время – только настоящее.

Exercise№1. What do these people hope they will have done by the time they are thirty years old? Using the prompts below, make sentences, as in the example.

Example: Alec: travel all over the world – Alec hopes he will have travelled all over the world by the time he is thirty.

1. Mark: start his own business

2. Susan: become famous

3. Kate: make her first collection

4. Jack: build his own house

5. Ted: take part in the Olympic Games

Exercise№2. Correct the mistakes.

1. This time tomorrow, John is lying on the beach.

2. Peter will help you when he will finish his dinner.

3. Sarah will finish decorating the Christmas tree by midnight.

4. I was turning on the heating. It’s cold in here.

5. Where do you spend your holidays this summer?

6. Helen will type these reports as soon as she will come back from her lunch break.

7. Perhaps the Jacksons have visited us tonight.

8. Jennifer will move to her new flat on Saturday. She has already arranged it.

Exercise№3. Answer the following questions about yourself.

1. What are you doing at the weekend?

2. What will you be doing this time next week?

3. What do you think life will be like in the future?

4. Where are you going next summer?

5. What will you have done by the end of today?

6. How many meals will you have eaten by the end of today?

Exercise№4. Make questions and complete the short answers.

Example: they / spend / £2000 on their holiday last year – Did they spend £2000 on their holiday last year? - No, they didn’t.

1. He / leave for Portugal tomorrow – Yes, …

2. Jessica Moore / record / a hundred songs so far – Yes, …

3. She / give / a big party on her birthday every year – No, …

4. Tom / see / the robbers when they were leaving the bank – Yes, …

5. The train / already / leave – No, …

6. They / get married / twenty years ago – No, …

7. Sam / play football / at 3 o’clock yesterday – Yes, …

8. We / do homework / by 2 o’clock yesterday – No, …

9. You / do the shopping / tomorrow –No, …

10. Sue / swim in the Mediterranean Sea / this time next week


The Passive Voice

The Passive Voice– пассивный (страдательный) залог. Form:be + V3 Чтобы употребить соответствующую форму пассивного залога, надо прямое дополнение конструкции в активном залоге использовать в качестве подлежащего в предложении с пассивным залогом. Грамматическое время при этом остается тем же. People built Stonehenge in prehistoric times. – Stonehenge was built in prehistoric times. Если необходимо указать, кем было совершено действие, используется предлог by. Чтобы показать, при помощи чего совершено действие, используется предлог with. The letter was written by a boy with a pencil. В вопросе и отрицании используется первый вспомогательный глагол. You have been invited to the party. Have you been invited to the party? – No, you haven’t.You have not been invited to the party.
tense time present past future
Simple am/is/are + V3 was/were + V3 will be + V3
Continuous am/is/are being + V3 was/were being + V3 -----------------------
Perfect have/has been +V3 had been + V3 will have been+ V3


Exercise№1. Give three forms of the following verbs:

write read begin beat

shake do make sweep

buy cut bring sell

find lose give take

meet pay break lay


Exercise№2. Define the forms of the verbs. Make 5 sentences using them, add time expressions.

Is being washed, had been written, is spoken, are kept, was used, will have been cooked, were being stolen, will be taken, will have been made, was spoilt, had been given, will be opened, was being swept, was lost, will be found, is being watched, had been broken, was closed, was being bought, is being sold.

Exercise№3. Add the agent to the sentence using prepositions by or with.

1. Bread is cut (a knife).

2. The table is being laid for dinner (Helen).

3. I was told the news (my friend).

4. She was introduced to the manager (the secretary).

5. The case has been mentioned to me (the lawyer).

6. The situation was explained to us (the parents).

7. In winter rivers and lakes are covered (ice).

8. Some flour, eggs, salt, sugar and milk were beaten (a mixer).

9. This car was bought (my boyfriend).

10. The money was entrusted to her (her aunt).

Exercise№4. Transform the sentences into the passive voice.

1. Sue loves ice-cream.

They grow rice in China.

Vegetarians don’t eat meat.

2. The police caught the criminal a year ago.

I cooked breakfast.

They did not see him yesterday.

3. They will raise prices again.

The police will arrest the criminal.

John will not invite us to the party.

4. Our neighbours are growing new flowers this year.

Ann is making up her face at the moment.

Andrew is not using a computer now.

5. The doctor was examining a patient when I came.

Sam was watching a film at 1 o’clock yesterday.

She was not cooking a cake that time.

6. They have collected all necessary information.

She has just closed the window.

I have not dusted the furniture yet.

7. We had spent all the money by the end of our holidays.

By noon they had cleaned the flat.

Sue had not used the computer very often.

8. Tom will have graduated from University by next month.

John will have received the papers by tomorrow.

Jack will not have fixed the car by 7 o’clock.

Exercise№5. Ask questions using the passive.

1. About the telephone (when / invent?)

2. About glass (how / make?)

3. About Volkswagen cars (where / make?)

4. About silver (what / use for?)

5. About television (when / invent?)

6. About the Pyramids (whom / build?)

7. About Nizhny Novgorod (whom / found?)

8. About jeans (what / make of?)

9. About coffee (how / make?)

Exercise№6. Rewrite the sentences in the active.

1. A new cinema is being built in the city centre.

2. Breakfast will be served at 8 in the morning.

3. Sue’s money had been stolen by the burglars.

4. A lot of food was eaten at the party.

5. The band’s latest video was made in London.

6. Designer clothes are sold in this shop.

7. The exam was being taken by the children at 2 o’clock yesterday.

Exercise№7. Choose the right variant.

Graham Alison, a businessman, aged 70, was reported / has been reported missing on Sunday. His wife came home late and found a note that was left / had been left by her husband on the bed. The message was that he’d had to go to New York on an emergency. Mrs Alison is being surprised / was surprised.

Early in the morning she has been woken up / was woken up by a telephone call: a man told / was told her that Mr Alison was kidnapped / had been kidnapped. The huge sum of money is demanded / was demanded. Moreover, she told / was told that she should pay / be paid in two days. Mrs Alison was consulted / consulted her lawyer and she gave / was given good advice. She was called by / called the police. So, the police was being informed / was informed. Soon they found / were found by one of the kidnappers and the next day the gang was arrested / had been arrested!

missing - пропавший

to kidnap – похитить кого-то с целью выкупа

on an emergency - срочно

to demand - требовать


Exercise№8. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple Passive, the Past Simple Passive, the Present Perfect Passive or the Future Passive.

Do you know how often the Olympic Games (hold)? They (hold) every four years. The first Olympic Games (hold) at Olympia, in ancient Greece, nearly 3,000 years ago. The tradition (continue) from 776BC to AD 393. Even wars (postpone), so that everyone could travel safely to the games. The Games (ban) in 394.

In 1890 the modern Games (found) by a Frenchman called Baron de Coubertin in Athens.

Originally, the Games (set up) for amateurs. Amateurs are people who (not pay) to play the sport whereas professionals (pay). Since 1984 some professional athletes, such as football players, (allow) to take part.

Before the Games begin, The Olympic torch (light) at Olympus by a mirror reflecting the sun. Then it (carry) by runners to the city where the games (hold). Sometimes by the time the last runner enters the stadium, the torch (carry) half-way round the world. Do you know where the next Olympic Games (hold)?


Exercise №9. Read the text, transform underlined sentences into the passive voice.



12 people play volleyball on a ground or in a gym. A net divides in half the place. The top of the net is 2,45 meters above the ground for men and 2,25 meters for women. Each team has 12 players 6 of which are on the field playing against 6 of the opponents' team at the same time. The rest of the players change places according to the captain's or coach's will. A referee sitting in a special "high chair" and two linesmen conduct the game. People play this game not on time like basketball or soccer but according to score for three or five games. A team wins the game by 15 points (not less) and with a margin of at least two points.

linesman – судья на линии


Modal Verbs

Модальные глаголы – это особые глаголы в английском языке, которые отличаются от всех других глаголов грамматическими характеристиками и модальными значениями. Эти глаголы не обозначают действие или состояние, а выражают отношение к нему, т.е. возможность, способность, необходимость или желательность совершения действия. I can swim. Я умею плавать. You should eat more fruit. Тебе следует есть больше фруктов. You must not smoke here. Здесь нельзя курить. Модальный глагол не может выражать действие, поэтому всегда употребляется со смысловым (смысловой глагол, как правило, выражен инфинитивом без частицы to). Практически все модальные глаголы образуют вопросительную и отрицательную формы без помощи вспомогательных глаголов. She can ski. Can she ski? – No, she can’t. She cannot (can’t) ski. Данные глаголы считаются ущербными, т.к. не имеют целого ряда грамматических форм (инфинитива, формы с окончанием -ing) и не образуют сложных глагольных форм. Модальный глагол Canи его форма прошедшего времени Could выражают: 1. Способность или умение. Sam can read. Sue could not skate. 2. Разрешение, запрещение. You can use my phone. 3. Форма could может употребляться в контексте настоящего времени в значении вежливой просьбы. Could you answer my question?


Exercise №1. Match the sentences with the reasons.

1. She can lift 100 pounds. 2. She can’t smell anything. 3. I couldn’t see the blackboard. 4. You couldn’t swim. 5. We could see the ocean and the beach. 6. They can’t hear us. 7. He can’t understand you. A) There is a lot of noise here. B) The pool was closed. C) She is very strong. D) She has a cold. E) I forgot my glasses. F) Our view was great. G) He doesn’t know any English.


Exercise №2. Complete the sentences. Use can, can’t, could or couldn’t.

1. Lulu feels great. She goes to aerobics class twice a week. When she began six months ago, she couldn’t exercise for more than 15 minutes. Now she ___ exercise for an hour. She also lost five pounds. Now she ___ wear a skirt she ___ wear before.

2. I’m sorry this homework is late. I ___ finish it last week because I was sick.

3. I ___ go to the library yesterday because I went to the dentist, but I ___ go later today.

4. I ___ sleep because my husband snored all night long.

5. A few years ago I was in a running club, at that time I ___ run a mile in six minutes. Now I don’t have time to run. Now I ___ even run a mile in twenty minutes.

6. Three months ago I ___ understand English very well, but now I ___.

7. When I was 15 I ___ drive, but now I ___ so I never use my bike.


Exercise №3. Work in small groups. Make up excuses.

1. I’m sorry I couldn’t call you. – I lost your number.

2. I’m sorry I couldn’t come to your party.

3. I’m sorry I couldn’t help you with your homework.

4. I’m sorry I can’t see you tomorrow.

5. I’m sorry I can’t lend you twenty dollars.


Exercise №4. Go around the room. Ask your classmates questions. Write the names of students who can do the things in the list. Then ask the students if they could do the same things five years ago.

Example: A: Can you stand on your head?

B: Yes, I can.

A: Could you stand on your head five years ago?

B: No, I couldn’t.

  Now Five years ago
1. Use a computer    
2. Speak sign language    
3. Ski    
4. Scuba dive    
5. Understand English    
6. Drive a car    
7. Ride a motor cycle    
8. Play chess    
9. Do yoga    

Exercise №5. Work with a partner. Read each sentence. Give possible results. Use can’t or couldn’t in your answers.

Example: My leg hurts. - I can’t dance. I can’t take a long walk.

1. My car didn’t work last night.

2. He has a terrible headache.

3. They got lost.

4. They lost their jobs.

5. I was ill last week.


Модальный глагол must выражает долженствование (obligation) и необходимость (necessity). You must come home early. I must be at the office at nine o`clock.


Exercise№6. Complete the sentences. Use must+one of these verbs:

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