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ћетодические подходы к анализу финансового состо€ни€ предпри€ти€

ѕроблема периодизации русской литературы ’’ века.  ратка€ характеристика второй половины ’’ века

÷еновые и неценовые факторы

’арактеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

—лужебные части речи. ѕредлог. —оюз. „астицы


ќбщий и прит€жательный.

my sister (my sisters) - my sisterТs book (my sistersТ books)

the teacher (the teachers) - the teacherТs pen (the teacherТs pens)

Kate - KateТs brother

Dickens - DickensТ novels


1. ќбразуйте множественное число.

A star, a mountain, a tree, a shilling, a king, the waiter, the queen, a man, the man, a woman, the woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, the city, a boy, a goose, the watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, the sheep, a tooth, a child, the ox, a deer, the life, a tomato.


2. ѕоставьте следующие предложени€ во множественное число.

1. This man is an engineer. 2. That woman is my sister. 3. This child is my son. 4. That goose is big. 5. This mouse is white. 6. This man is a doc≠tor. 7. That woman is my cousin. She is a teacher 8. That girl is my niece. She is a pupil. 9. This girl has a blue sweater. 10. This boy has a good coat. 11. My uncle has a large flat. 12. There is a table in the room. 13. I have a good pen. My pen is in my pocket. 14. There is a flower in the vase. 15. This child's foot is sore. 16. This room is very large. 17. There is a match in the box. 18. Has this lady a knife? 19. There is a man and a woman in the street. 20. This lady is that gen≠tleman's wife. 21. This shoe is too large for my foot. 22. The child is sitting on a bench. 23. My tooth is white. 24. This key is made of steel. 25. A potato is a vegetable and a cherry is a fruit. 26. This is my friend's study.


3. ѕоставьте следующие предложени€ во множественное число.

1.What is that child's name? 2. The cat has caught a mouse. 3. There was a lady, a gentleman, a boy and a girl in the room. 4. In the farm-yard we could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? Ч He is a Frenchman. 6. Why don't you eat this po≠tato? 7. This strawberry is still green. 8. The with≠ered leaf has fallen to the ground. 9. Can you see a bird in that tree? 10. Does your tooth still ache? 11.1 held up my foot to the fire to warm it. 12. His child studies very well. 13. This man works at our office. 14. There is a new house in our street. 15. This story is very interesting. 16. I have hurt my foot. 17. The wolf has been shot. 18. He keeps his toy in a box. 19. Put this knife on that table.

4. ѕерефразируйте следующие словосочетани€ и предложени€. ”потребл€€ прит€жательный падеж.

1. The room of my friend. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The poems of Pushkin. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new club of the workers. 8. The letter of Pete. 9. The car of my parents. 10. The life of this woman. 11. The handbags of these wom≠en. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The chil≠dren of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large. 15. The name of this girl is Jane. 16. The work of these students is interesting.



ј–“» Ћ№

ѕеред каждым нарицательным существительным должен сто€ть артикль. јртикль употребл€етс€, если перед существительным стоит прит€жательное или указательное местоимение, другое существительное в прит€жательном падеже, количественное числительное или отрицание no (не not).

Ќеопределенный артикль a (an Ц перед гласными a, e, i, o, u, y) может употребл€тьс€ только с исчисл€емыми существительными, сто€щими в единственном числе. ѕеред неисчисл€емыми существительными или существительными во множественном числе неопределенный артикль опускаетс€. ќпределенный артикль the употребл€етс€ как с исчисл€емыми, так и с неисчисл€емыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting. (исчисл€емое в ед.ч.)

This is meat. The meat is fresh. (неисчисл€емое)

These are ___ books. The books are good. (мн.ч.)

≈сли предмет упоминаетс€ впервые, перед ним ставитс€ неопределенный артикль. ”помина€ этотже предмет вторично, мы ставим перед ним определенный артикль.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

ќпределенный артикль ставитс€ если:

- упом€нутый предмет €вл€етс€ единственным в мире The sun is shining brightly.

- этот предмет €вл€етс€ определенным по ситуации Put the book on the table.

»мена собственные употребл€ютс€, как правило, без артиклей: Mary, Moscow, England, Asia, Oxford Street

ќпределенный артикль употребл€етс€ с именами собственными в следующих случа€х:

- названи€ рек, морей, океанов, озер, горных цепей, каналов, заливов, проливов, пустынь, групп островов

E.g.: the Oka, the Baltic Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Ontario (но Lake Ontario), the Urals, the English Channel, the Sahara, the Bermudas

- названи€ сторон света the North, the South, the East, the West

- названи€ английских и американских газет и журналов

- названи€ некоторых стран и местностей the Russian Federation (the RF), the USA, the UK, the Congo, the Netherlands, the Crimea, the Ukraine, the West Indies

- названи€ некоторых исторических зданий the Kremlin, the British Museum, the Tower of London

- названи€ кораблей, гостиниц, кинотеатров

- фамилии во множественном числе дл€ обозначени€ семьи в целом Ц всех членов семьи


- ≈сли перед существительным стоит вопросительное или относительное местоимение, артикль опускаетс€ What ___ colour is your hat?

- ѕеред обращени€ми артикль опускаетс€ What are you doing, ___ children?

- ѕеред названи€ми университетов артикль не ставитс€ at ___ St. Petersburg University, from ___ Oxford University

I have a Е He has a Е I see a Е This is a Е That is aЕ I am a Е She is a Е He is a Е at a quarter past five in a loud voice in a low voice in an angry voice in a thin voice in a Е voice to have a good time a lot of to go for a walk What a good day! What a long story! What a day! such a Е after a while in a day (week, month, year) a great deal in the middle in the corner to the right to the left in the morning in the afternoon in the evening to play the piano the play the guitar WhatТs the use? to the cinema (theatre, shop, market) at the cinema (theatre, shop, market) the same The fact is that Е in the country to the country the rest of the Е in ___ front at ___ night to go to ___ bed to go to ___ work to go to ___ school to go ___ home to leave ___ home for ___ work at ___ half past five in ___ September on ___ Sunday after (from) ___ work after (from) ___ school to have (cook, make, prepare) ___ lunch (breakfast, tea, dinner, supper) after (before, at, for) ___ breakfast (lunch, tea, dinner, supper) to watch ___ TV ___ Chemistry ___ English to play ___ chess to play ___ football out of ___ doors from ___ morning till ___ night all ___ day long on ___ horseback on ___ board a ship in ___ fact itТs ___ high time to take ___ care of to take ___ aim from ___ place to ___ place It was ___ morning (daytime, evening, night) at ___ sunrise (sunset) in (to) ___ town by ___ bus (tram, train, car, plane, ship) in ___ spring (summer, autumn, winter) for ___ life



1. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. For Е breakfast I have Е coffee with Е milk and Е sugar. I have Е jam too. 2. There are Е different things on Е dinner-table. 3. Е lamp is on Е table. 4. What do you have for Е lunch at Е school on Е Wednesday? 5. They have Е large flat. There are Е four rooms in Е flat. 6. When my Е grandfather was Е young man, he studied Е physics. 7. Do you speak Е English? 8. We had Е lessons on Е Mathematics yesterday. 9. Do you play Е piano? 10. There is Е big black piano in Е lining-room. 11. It was Е hot day. Е sun was shining brightly in Е blue sky. Е wolf and Е lamb meet at Е stream. 12. Moscow is situated on Е Moscow River. 13. In Е Siberia there are many long rivers: Е Ob, Е Irtysh, Е Yenissei, Е Lena and Е Amur. 14. Е Altai Mountains are higher than Е Urals.


2. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. Several rivers run into Е sea at Е New York. Е most important is Hudson River which flows into Е Atlantic Ocean. 2. LetТs go to Е shop. I must buy Е bread and Е milk. 3. Е lot of Е tourists from Е different countries come to Е St. Petersburg. They want to see one of Е most beautiful cities in ... world. 4. What do you do in Е evening? Ц I often play Е chess with my Е grandfather. 5. Yesterday at ... lesson of Е geography Е teacher told us Е very interesting Е things about Е famous travelers. 6. I am thirsty. Give me Е water, please. 7. What Е bus do you take to get to Е work? 8. Whose Е pen is this? 9. We have Е good library. 10. Our books are in Е big bookcases. 11. There is Е tea in Е glass. 12. Who cooks Е dinner in your Е family? 13. There is Е new school at Е corner of our street.


3. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. Where is Е soup? - Е soup is in Е big saucepan on Е gas-cooker. 2. There is Е little brown coffee-table in our Е room in Е front of Е sofa. 3. We have Е big dog. Еdog is very clever. 4. My friend has Е very good computer. 5. Е Moscow is a river that moves very slowly. There is Е canal called Е Moscow-Volga Canal which joins Е Moscow to Е Volga. 6. In Е May Е days are Еlonger than in Е April. 7. Bill was Е very rich man. He was Е richest man in Е village. 8. Pete is Е tallest boy in our class. 9. When we want to write Е letter, we take .. piece of Е paper and Е pen. We first write our Е address and Е date in Е right-hand corner. Then on Е left-hand side we write Е greetings. On Е next line we begin Е real letter. 10. Do you like to play Е guitar? 11. What Е game does your sister like? Ц She likes to play Е tennis.


4. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. Here is Е large window. Through Е window we can see ... room. Opposite Е window there is Е door. On Е door there is Е curtain. In Е corner of Е room there is Е round table. 2. Do you speak Е Spanish? 3. My uncle is ... great specialist in Е biology. 4. I study Е English. I attend Е English classes in Е evening. On Е days when I have no Е classes, I stay at ... home and do some work about the house. I have Е dinner with my Е family. After Е dinner I talk to Е members of my Е family, watch Е TV and read Е books, Е newspapers and Е magazines. I go to Е bed late at Е night. 5. Which was Е most difficult exercise in Е test-paper? 6. February is Е shortest month of Е year. 7. There are many Е seas and Е lakes on Е map. 8. I want to go to Е New York some Е day.


5. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Е. Africa is Е very large continent lying to Е south of Е Europe and to Е south-east of Е Asia to which it is joined by Е Isthmus of Suez. Less than one hundred years ago Е men knew almost nothing of Е middle of Е continent. Е travelers from Е Europe made Е ling journeys into Е center but met with Е terrible difficulties, for Е continent is covered with Е forests full of Е fearful wild animals. Some travelers died of Е hunger or Е thirst or Е strange illnesses, others were killed by Е lions, still Е others by Е natives: but nevertheless bold men were found ready to go along Е rivers into Е heart of Е Africa. The merchants who came from Е European countries had much to sell, and here were Е millions of Е people ready to buy

6. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Е English is spoken practically all over Е world. It is spoken as Е mother tongue in Е Great Britain, ЕUnited States, ЕCanada, ЕAustralia, and ЕNew Zealand. Еlot of Еpeople speak Е English in Е China, Е Japan, Е India and Е other countries. It is one of Е 6 official languages of Е United Nations. It is studied as Е foreign language in many Е countries. EnglandТs Е history helps to understand Е present condition of Е English. Many English Е words were borrowed from Е language of Angles and Е Saxons. Hundreds of French Е words came into English. These French words didnТt crowd out corresponding Е Anglo-Saxons words. Some words came into Е English directly from ЕLatin, which was Е language of Е church and Е universities in Е Middle Ages.


7. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Е official name of Е country we usually call England and Great Britain is Е United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Е United Kingdom is situated on Е group of islands lying just off Е Mainland of north-western . Europe. Е British Isles include Great Britain, Е Ireland and Е number of smaller islands. Е total area of Е British Isles is 355 000 square km. Many ages ago Е British Isles formed Е part of Е continent. Е Rocky highlands of ... Scotland resemble Е Norwegian coast. Another evidence that Е islands were Е part of Е continent is Е shallow ness of Е water between them and Е mainland. Now Great Britain is separated from Е continent by Е English Channel, Е narrowest part of which is called Е Strait of Dower. Е British Isles are surrounded by Е shallow waters of Е Irish Sea and Е North Sea, Е Norwegian Sea, Е North Channel and Е Atlantic Ocean.


8. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Wales is Е Country in Е west of ЕGreat Britain. It is mainly Е mountainous land with Е chiefly agricultural economy and an industrial and coal-mining areas in Е south. Еlandscape is beautiful. Many Е English people move to Е Wales when they retire. Cardiff, Е large city in the south, was chosen as Е capital of Wales in Е 1955, mainly because of its size. Since 1536, Wales has been governed by Е England and Е heir to Е throne of England has Е Title of Prince of Wales, but ...Welsh people have strong since of Е identity. There is Е Welsh National Party which wants Е independence from Е United Kingdom and Е Welsh language is still in certain parts of Е country. Welsh is Е ancient Celtic language, similar to Breton, spoken in Brittany, France. In Е 60Тs Welsh was given Е equal status with English as Е official language and is used in Е law courts. It is taught in Е schools and some Е TV program are broadcast in Welsh.


9. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Jules Verne was born in 1828 in Е France. Е Young Jules was interested in Е machinery, sailing and writing. Together with his brother Paul, he explored Е river near their home in Е old sailboat JulesТ father was Е lawyer and he wanted his son to continue Е his career. So Jules was sent to Е Paris to study law. However, he decided soon that his main Е interest was writing. He joined Еclub of scientific writers. This group was interested in Е Balloons so Jules soon wrote Е adventure story called УFive Weeks in a BalloonФ. His favorite subject at school was Е geography, so he wanted to describe in his books as many parts of Е world as possible. Jules VernТs books are still popular now because they are good adventure Еstories. But in his books Verne also forecast Е many inventions that we have now. He believed that someday Е people would have Е airplanes, Е submarines, Е Television, and powerful weapons.


10. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Е Modern life is impossible without Е traveling. To understand how try this is you only have to go to Е railway station, ... port, or Е airport. There you will see hundreds of Еpeople hurrying to catch Е. train, Е ship or Е plain. Of course, Е fastest way of traveling is by Еair. You can have Еbreakfast in Moscow, Е dinner Ц in London, ЕParis or Berlin and supper in New York on Е same day. Traveling by Е train is slower than by plane but it also has its Е advantages. You can see Е country you are traveling through and not only Е clouds as when you are flying. Modern trains have very comfortable seats which make even Е longest journey enjoyable. That is why many people prefer to travel by Е train. Traveling by Е sea is also very popular. In Е board of Е large ship or Е small river boat you can visit Е foreign countries and different Е parts of your own country.


11. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Е worldТs greatest international sports games are known as Е Olympic Games. Е Olympic ides means Е friendship and Е cooperation among Еpeople of Е world. Е Olympic Movement proved that real peace can be achieved through Еsport. The Olympic emblem is five interlinked Еrings: blue, yellow, black, green and red. Any national Е flag contains as least one of these colors. Е original Olympic games began in ancient Е Greece in 776 B.C. These games were Е part of ЕFestival held very fourth year in Е honor of God Zeus at Еplace called Olympia. It was Е great athletic festival, including Е competitions in wrestling, foot race and chariot race, rowing and others. Е games were for men only. Е Greek women were forbidden not only to participate but also to watch Е Olympics. Е first modern Olympic games were held in ЕAthens in 1896. Then they were resumed in Е London after Е Second World War. Since then the Olympics are held every fourth Е year in Еdifferent countries.


12. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Е Americans are very fond of Еsport. Е most popular sports in Е USA are Е football, which is played from Е April to October, baseball, played from September to December, Е basketball, played from October to April and Е ice hockey, played in most northern Е cities from October to March.

American football derives from Е English game of Е rugby. It started at Е Harvard University in Е 1870Тs. It is Е game for two teams of eleven men on Е field. Е object of Е game is to have Е control of Е ball and to score points by carrying it across Е goal-line. Baseball is Е team game derived from ЕEnglish game of cricket. It is played with Е bat and ball two teams of nine Е players each, on Е field with four Е bases. Baseball is Е national game in Е USA and it is very popular in Canada too. Basketball is ... game which nowadays is popular all over Е world. It was invented in Е 1891. During Е 20Тs Е first US league championship was organized. In Е 70Тs Е American Championship was divided into two leagues: Е ABA (American Basketball Association), which does not exist any longer and which played with Е blue, red and white ball and Е NBA (National Basketball Association).


13. ѕоставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

At present Е British royal family is by Queen Elizabeth. When .. Queen was born on Е 21st of April 1926, her Е grandfather, Е King George V, was on Е throne and her uncle was his heir. Е death of her grandmother and Е abdication of her uncle brought her father to Е throne as King George VI.

As Е child she studied constitutional history and Е law as well as Е art and Е music. In addition she learned to ride and acquired her enthusiasm for Е horses. As she grew older she began to take in Е public life, making her first broadcast at Е age of 14.

Е marriage of Е young Princess Elizabeth to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh too place in November 1947. She came to the throne after her fatherТs death in 1952 and was crowned in Е Westminster Abbey in June 1953. Among Queen ElizabethТs many duties are Е regular visits she makes to foreign Е countries, and especially those of Е Commonwealth, whose Е interests and Е welfare are very important to her. . Е Queen has allowed Е BBC to make a documentary film about Е every day of Е royal family.



  1. личные 2. прит€жательные 3. возвратные


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