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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

Ценовые и неценовые факторы

Характеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы


Обучение письму и письменной речи 2 страница




cargo-side truck, towing truck, cross-country six-vehicle truck, cargo vehicle, special vehicle, prime mover


6. Make a crossword using the following definitions. Add somewhat of your own.


1. It absorbs the chocks. 1. It connects the wheel with the frame.

2. …………………….. 2. It serves to slow down and stop the vehicle.

3. …………………….. 3. It ensures elastic connection between the

frame and the axles.

4. They serve to control the truck.

5. It mounts the truck units and mechanisms.

6. It accommodate the truck controls, the drive

and passenger.

7. It serves to power the truck.

8. It changes the direction of the truck


1. Read and translate the text.


Automobiles are trackless, self-propelled vehicles for land transportation of people or goods, or for moving materials. There are three main types of automobiles. These are passenger cars, buses and lorries (trucks). The automobile consists of the following components: a) the engine; b) the framework; c) the mechanism that transmits the power from engine to the wheels; d) the body.




1. engine 2. clutch: 3. gearbox; 4. propeller shaft; 5. final drivegears; 6. disk brake;

7. front axle; 8. rear axle; 9. coil spring suspension; 10. shock absorber;

11. radiator; 12. steering; 13. chassis; 14. body

Passenger cars are, as a rule, propelled by an internal combustion engine. They are distinguished by the horsepower of the engine, the number of cylinders in the engine and the type of the body, the type of transmission, wheelbase, weight and overall length.

There are engines of various designs. They differ in the number of cylinders, their position, their operating cycle, valve mechanism, ignition and cooling system.

Most automobile engines have six or eight cylinders, although some four-, twelve-, and sixteen-cylinder engines are used.

An automobile, powered by a petrol engine, begins to operate when the driver turns a flywheel connected to the engine crankshaft. As the crankshaft revolves, a mixture of fuel and air is drawn from a carburetor into the engine cylinders. The ignition system provides the electric sparks that ignite this mixture. The resultant explosions of the mixture turn the crankshaft, and the engine starts moving. By regulating the flow of the fuel and air with a throttle, the driver controls the rotational speed of the crankshaft.

Cooling, electrical ignition and lubrication systems are of great importance for the good performance of a car. The lights, radio and heater add to the flexibility, comfort, and convenience of the car. The indicating devices keep the driver informed as to engine temperature, oil pressure, amount of fuel, and battery charging rate.

Brakes are of drum and disk types. The steering system consists of a manually operated steering wheel which is connected by a steering column to the steering gear from which linkages run to the front wheels. It is difficult to turn the steering wheel, and special hydraulic power mechanisms are used to lessen this effort. Suitable springings are used against shocks. These are leaf springs, coil springs, torsion bars and air suspensions.


vehicle – перевозочное средство

framework – корпус, рама

engine - двигатель

clutch – сцепление

gearbox – коробка передач

propeller shaft – карданный вал двигателя

final drive – главная передача

disk brake – дисковой тормоз

front axle – передняя ось

rear axle – задняя ось

suspension - подвеска

shock absorber - амортизатор

radiator - радиатор

steering gear – рулевой механизм

chassis – рама, ходовая часть

body - корпус

propel - двигатель

wheelbase – колесная база, расстояние между осями

flywheel - маховик

carburetor - карбюратор

torsion – кручение, закручивание

throttle - дроссель

drum - барабан

linkage - сцепление

internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания

horsepower – лошадиная сила

operating cycle – круговой такт, процесс

valve mechanism – клапанный механизм

ignition system – система зажигания

cooling system – система охлаждения

lubrication system – система смазки

engine crankshaft – коленчатый вал

fuel - топливо

spark - искра

explosion - взрыв

heater – радиатор, печь

indicating device – приборная панель

brakes - тормоза

leaf springs – листовые рессоры

coil springs – пружинные рессоры

torsion bars – торсион

air suspension – пневматическая подвеска




2. Answer the following questions:

I. What types of automobiles do you know?

2. How many cylinders have automobile engines?

3. What components does an automobile consist of?

4. What is a passenger car propelled with?

5. What ignites the mixture of fuel and air?

6. What do the resultant explosions of the mixture do?

7. How does the driver control the rotational speed of the crankshaft?

8. What types of brakes do you know?


3. Translate into Russian paying attention to the word "as ":

1. As the mixture burns, high pressure is created. 2. The automobile uses gasoline as a fuel. 3. As long as the car is in order, you can be carried from one place to another. 4. No special cooling fans are, as a rule, required. 5. Some semiconductors are almost as good conductors as metals.



4. Finish the sentences by choosing the right variant:

l. The mechanism used for stopping the car is .... a) clutch;.

2. The mechanism used for changing the speed is b) gearbox;

c) brakes

3. The mechanism used for connecting (or disconnecting) a) brakes; b) clutch;

the engine from the gearbox is.... c) steering system.

4. The unit carrying the power from the engine to the car wheels is.... a) power plant;

b) power train;

c) chassis.

5. The instrument meas­uring the speed of the car is.... a) heater,

b) lights;

c) speedometer.



5. Find the equivalents:

1. internal combustion engine a. поршень

2. combustion chamber b. верхняя мертвая точка

3. stroke c. четырехтактный двигатель

4. piston d. коленчатый вал

5. top dead centre e. отверстие клапана

6. bottom dead centre f. двигатель внутреннего сгорания

7. four-stroke cycle engine g. нижняя мертвая точка

8. two-cycle engine h. топливная система

9. crankshaft i. такт впрыска топлива

10. intake stroke j. двухтактный двигатель

11. valve opening k. камера сгорания

12. fuel system l. ход, такт поршня

13. power stroke m. выхлоп

14. exhaust n. рабочий ход поршня



1. Phonetic drill:

Modern, certain, constant, fix, tow, gear, easy, speed, range, change, drive, road, wire, wiper, cabin, platform.


2. Finish the sentences according to the example:

Ex: The truck is set in motion by means of engine.

- The torque is transmitted from the engine to the driven wheel …

- The size of the torque is changed …

- The gearbox is connected to the final drive …

- The torque is transmitted to the differential to the driving wheel …

- The direction of the truck is changed …

- The wheels are connected to the frame …

- The axles are connected to the frame …


3. Solve the proportions:

running gear ? truck controls

a. frame = transfer case = ?


? chassis ?

b. springs = ? = fuel feed system



body power sources ? additional equipment

c. cabin = ? = lighting system = ? =


= consumers


4. Describe a truck using the following expressions:

- Truck is used for …

- It is used for …

- The truck consists of …

- The engine is …

- The transmission transmits …

- It contains …

- The running gear includes …

- All the truck mechanisms are mounted on …

- The running gear allows to …

- Truck controls include …

- The body of the truck is located on …

- The electrical equipment serves for …

- It consists of …

- The additional equipment includes …



1. Phonetic drill:

feature, increase, recently, gear, less, mesh, synchromesh, preference, splitter, easier, speed, manufacture,

manual, high, varied, version.


2. Read the text.


All modern manual gearboxes have certain features in common. They gear down the engine revolutions to increase the torque output to the driving wheels.

In the past most gearboxes were of the sliding mesh type. More recently makers have manufactured constant mesh gearbox which are less noisy and easier to operate. Many manufacturers have now introduced synchromesh gearbox as well. They give a quicker and much noisy hear change.

In transmission the gearbox for heavy vehicles tended to be range-change designs with synchromesh equipment, but these have not acquired a monopoly. In fact, there is now a growing preference for splitter boxes because they are easier to drive. Also constant-mesh is still in favour because maintenance is reduced.

The preferences are varied. The Swedes stick in synchromesh. Volvo with range-change plus splitter in some cases, while Scandia has a 10-speed splitter for its mid-power models and a 10-speed range-change to take the higher torques. The Z.F. 12-speed synchromesh splitter is used by Seddan Atkinson and D.A.F. and the constant-mesh version is used by M.A.N., while Mercedes-Benz and D.A.F. use the Z.F. 9-speed synchromesh range-change. Bedford uses the Spicer 10-speed constant-mash splitter as does Leyland for the T 45.

- sliding mesh gearbox – коробка передач со скользящими шестернями

- constant mesh gearbox – коробка передач с шестернями постоянного зацепления

- synchromesh gearbox – коробка передач с синхронизаторами

- range-change – с изменяемым диапазоном (передаточных чисел_

- splitter – дополнительная коробка передач (делитель)


2. Ask questions to the text.

3. Let your partner answer your questions.

4. Be ready to retell the text.



1. Reading practice.

Gas, cycle, system, diesel, method, mixture, energy, cylinder, kerosene, maximum, carburetor, machine, radial, mechanical, to mix, to form, to classify, to operate.


2. Read and translate word pairs:

a). Work – to work; form to form; heat – to heat; spark – to spark, power – to power

b). A heat engine converts heat energy into mechanical power. An Internal combustion engine is a form of a heat engine. Most vehicles are powered by internal combustion. The engines work on petrol or diesel fuel. Gasoline engines are spark-ignition engines, that is they have an system that sparks the fuel-air mixture. The formed gases are heated greatly and push the piston down. The piston revolves the crankshaft thus doing useful work…

3. Open the brackets by chousing the correct variant.

1. Small engines are normally (air-cooled / water cooled).

2. Larger engines on mostly (air-cooled / water cooled).

3. Passenger cars are commonly powered by (gasoline / diesel / multifuel engines).

4. Modern heavy-duty trucks are usually powered by (gasoline / diesel / multifuel engines).

5. The automotive engines are normally (2-cycle / 4-cycle).

6. The engines of motor cycles are generally (2-cycle / 4-cycle).

7. 8-cylinaer engines are (in-line / V-type).

8. Most 4-cyltnder engines are (in-line / V-type).


4. Study the words, read and translate the text.

to convert -преобразовывать

to call – звать, называть

to burn (burnt) - гореть

inside - внутри

cylinder - цилиндр

reciprocating engine – поршневой двигатель

to push – толкать, надавливать

as a rule - как правило

as follows – следующим образом

petrol - бензин

multifuel - многотопливный

kind - вид, сорт

piston - поршень

stroke – ход, такт

complete - полный, законченный

arrange – располагать, устраивать

outer - внешний

inner - внутренний

overheadvalve - верхнеклапанный

working fluid – рабочая жидкость

to ignite – зажигать, воспламенять

to compress - сжимать

spark - искра

r.p.m. (revolution per minute) – оборот в минуту

gear - механизм

crank gear – кривошипно-шатунный механизм

timing gear – распределительный механизм

to lubricate – смазывать



The engine is the power plant of a vehicle. Engine is a machine for converting any kind of energy into mechanical power. Engine that converts heat energy into mechanical power is called heat engine. Internal combustion engine are heat engines because the fuel burns directly inside the cylinders. Reciprocating engine is an engine where gases are formed and their pressure pushes the piston.

The military trucks are powered as a rule by reciprocating internal combustion engines. Reciprocating internal combustion engines may be classified as followes:

- according to the fuel they work on, as gasoline, diesel, gas and multifuel englines;

- according to the number of piston strokes in one complete working cycle, as two-stroke engines and four-stroke engines;

- according to the number of cylinder, as four-, six-, eight-, ten-, and twelve-cylinder engines;

- according to the arrangement of cylinders as in-line engines, V-engines and star or radial engines;

- according to the working fluid, as compression-ignition engines and spark ignition engine;

- according to mixing, as engines with outer mixing and with inner mixing;

- according to the method of cooling, as liquid-cooled and air-cooled engines.

5. Answer the questions.

- What is the engine in common?

- What is the function of the engine as a machine?

- What engine is called heat one?

- What engine is called reciprocating one?

- What engines are the military trucks powered by?

- What is the classification of reciprocating internal combustion engines?

6. Read one more text, compare the two texts.


1. The engine is the source of power that makes the car move. It is usually called an internal combustion engine because gasoline is burned within its cylinders or combustion chambers. Most automobile engines have six or eight cylinders.

2. The operating cycle of the four-stroke engine that takes place in the engine cylinder can be divided into four strokes. The upper limit of the piston movement is called the top dead centre. The lower limit of piston movement is called the bottom dead centre. A stroke is the piston movement from the top dead centre to the bottom dead centre, or from the bottom dead centre to the top dead centre. In other words, the piston completes a stroke each time it changes the direction of its motion.

3. Where the entire cycle of events in the cylinder requires four strokes (two crankshaft revolutions), the engine is called a four-stroke cycle engine. The four strokes are: intake, compression, power and exhaust.

4. Two-cycle engines have also been made, and in such engines the entire cycle of events is completed in two strokes or one revolution of the crankshaft.

5. On the intake stroke the intake valve is opened. The mixture of air and vaporized gasoline is delivered into the cylinder through the inlet valve.

On the compression stroke the inlet valve is closed so that the mixture can be compressed.

On the power stroke both valves (inlet and exhaust) are closed in order to rise pressure during the mixture combustion.

On the exhaust stroke the exhaust valve is opened to exhaust the residual gas.

7. Answer the questions to the second text:

1. What is the top dead centre?

2. What is the bottom dead centre?

3. When is the engine called a four-stroke cycle engine?

4. When is the engine called a two-cycle engine?

5. What kind of strokes can the events in the engine cylinder be divided into?

8. Finish the sentences:

1. An internal combustion engine is a) inside the combustion chamber;

called so because gasoline is burned.... b) outside the combustion chamber.


2. The upper limit of the pis­ton a) the bottom dead centre;

movement is called.... b) the top dead centre.

3. The lower limit of the pis­ton

movement is called ...


4. The four-cycle engine requires.... a) two strokes of piston movement;

b) four strokes of piston movement.


5. The mixture of air and gasoline a) on the, power stroke;

is delivered into the cylinder.... b) on the exhaust stroke;

c) on the intake stroke;

d) on the compression stroke.

9. Find the equivalents:

I. to deal (with) a. программное обеспечение

2. to elaborate (to work out) programs b. отвечать современным требованиям

3. computer-aided-design c. аппаратная часть

4. computer-aided-manufacturing d. иметь дело с…

5. to meet up-to-date demands (requirements) e. защищать от вирусов

6. software f. автоматизированное проектирование

7. hardware g. предлагать решения

8. to offer solutions h. разрабатывать программы

9. to solve problems i. автоматизированное производство

10. to defend from viruses j. решать проблемы




1. Reading drill. Check your memory abilities.

a). an engine

A heat engine

A heat internal combustion engine

A reciprocating heat internal combustion engine

b). It is an engine.

It is a gasoline engine.

It is a water-cooled gasoline engine.

It is a V-type water-cooled gasoline engine.

It is a 4-stroke V-type water-cooled gasoline engine.

It is an 8-cylinder 4-stroke V-type water-cooled gasoline engine.


2. Read and translate the words:

To convert – converter – conversion

To compress – compressor – compression

To mix – mixer – mixture

To cool – cooler – cooling

To press – pressure

To ignite – ignition

To arrange – arrangement

3. Make sentences using different engine characteristics given below:

I. Model …………………………… Kamaz-740

Type of engine ………………….. four stroke, compression-ignition

Number of cylinders …………….. 8

Arrangement of cylinders ……….. 90oV-type

Cooling …………………………... water

II. Model …………………………… Jeguar AS6

Type of engine ………………….. four stroke, diesel

Number of cylinders …………….. 6

Arrangement of cylinders ……….. in-line

Cooling …………………………... liquid

III. Model …………………………… Lotus 910S

Type of engine ………………….. four-stroke, turbocharged diesel

Number of cylinders …………….. 4

Arrangement of cylinders ……….. in-line

Cooling …………………………... liquid



4. Give definitions of the following types of engines using the table.

1. An engine - fuel burns inside the cylinders

producing power.

2. A heat online is a that - converts any kind of energy ito

mechanical power.

3. An interna1 machine where - the piston moves in the cylinder

combustion engine under the pressure of gas.

- converts heat energy into

4. A reciprocating engine mechanical power.

- produces power by burning air and



1. A V-type engine - fuel-air mixture is formed in the carburetor.

2. A 4-stroke engine - fuel-air mixture is ignited by a spark.

3. A spark ignition engine - operates on different types of fuel.

4. A water-cooled engine is an that - the cycle of operations consists of 4

engine where strokes.

5. A gasoline engine - water or other cooling liquid circulated

around the cylinders.

6. An engine with outer - the cylinders are arranged in V-form.


7. A multifuel engine - burned petrol as fuel.

5. Study the picture. Learn the parts of the engine.


Internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания

27. rubber collar – резиновая манжета

28. carburetor – карбюратор

30. inlet gas piping – впускной газопровод

31. connection – штуцер

32. 33. valve rocker – коромысло клапана

34. valve rocker stand – стойка коромысла клапана

35. high pressure wire – провод высокого напряжения

36. ignition distributor – распределитель зажигания

37. oil level indicator – указатель уровня масла

39. power shaft – приводной вал

40. fuel pump – топливный насос

42. oil filter – масляный фильтр

43. oil pan – масляный поддон

44. starter – стартер

45. connecting rod – шатун

46. exhaust manifold – выпускной коллектор






1. Phonetic drill:

[d] – called, closed, opened

[id] – heated, completed, ignited

[t] – mixed, sucked, compressed

2. Reading drill:

to suck – suction

to move – motion

to form – formation

to compress – compression

to depress – depression

to ignite – ignition

to expend – expansion

to revolve – revolution

to operate – operation


to mix – mixture

to press – pressure


heat – to heat

form – to form

spark – to spark

power – to power

force – to force


3. Read and translate the sentences:

a). 1. The moving piston revolves the crankshaft.

2. The piston moving down the cylinder revolves the crankshaft.

3. The piston moves down revolving the crankshaft.

4. Moving down the cylinder, the piston revolves the crankshaft.

5. During the third, stroke the piston is moving down the cylinder.


b) 1. The mixture burns quickly forming a great amount of heat.

2. The reciprocating notion of the piston is converted into rotating motion of the crankshaft.

3. All gasoline engines of native automobile are operating according to the four-cycle principle.

4. a spark running across the spark plug ignite the fuel-air mixture. .

5. Moving up the cylinder the piston pushes the burnt gases out of the cylinder.


4. Study the words, read and translate the text.

suction - всасывание

TDC - top dead centre – верхняя мертвая точка

BDC - bottom dead centre – нижняя мертвая точка

to reach - достигать

compression - сжатие

working fluid – рабочая жидкость

spark plug – свеча зажигания

expansion - расширение

explosion - взрыв

to revolve – вращать


Cycle of operations.

In a four-stroke cycle gasoline engine the cycle of operations consists of four strokes: suction, compression, power and exhaust.

The first cycle is called suction or induction stroke. During this stroke the piston moves from TDC to the BDC and the fuel-air mixture is sucked through the opened inlet valve

while the exhaust valve is closed. In the cylinder the fuel-air mixture is mixed with

the burnt gases forming the so-called working fluid. As the piston reaches the BDC the

inlet valve is closed.

The second stroke is called compression stroke. The inlet and exhaust valves are closed. The piston moves up compressing the working fluid. The working fluid compression ensures quicker combustion and formation of high gas pressure in the cylinder. The higher compression ratio the higher gas pressure to the piston during combustion and the engine operation is more efficient.

The third cycle is called ignition, expansion or power stroke. When the piston reaches the top of the stroke a spark runs across the spark plug igniting the compressed mixture.

The mixture burns quickly forming a great amount of heat. The gases from the explosion ere heated greatly, expand and push the piston down with considerable force. Moving down the piston revolved the crankshaft. The inlet and outlet valves are still closed. This is the only stroke during which the gas is doing useful work.

The fourth cycle is called exhaust stroke. In this stroke the intaka valve is closed, the outlet valve is opened. The piston moves from the BDC to the TDC pushing out the burnt gases through the exhaust valve. When the piston ranches the top dead centre exhaust valve closes and the cycle of operation is completed.


6. Answer the questions:

1. What are the four-strokes of the cycle of operations in a four-stroke gasoline engine?

2. What is the first cycle called?

3. What is the second stroke called?

4. What is the third cycle called?

5. What is the fourth cycle called?



6. Study the picture. Match the numbers with the words below. Learn the new words.




Engine – двигатель

Internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания

1. fuel-supply pipe – топливопровод

3. oil pipe – маслопровод

4. oil filter – маслоналивная горловина

5. camshaft – распределительный вал

8. outlet valve – выпускной клапан

9. cover of the head cylinder block – крышка головки блока цилиндров

10. spark plug – свеча зажигания

11. head cylinder block – головка блока цилиндров

12. piston – поршень

13. cylinders block – блок цилиндров

14. flywheel –маховик

17. crankshaft – коленчатый вал

18. oil crankshaft pan – масляный поддон

21. oil pump – масляный насос

23. fan – вентилятор

24. water pump – водяной насос

25. inlet valve – выпускной клапан



1. Phonetic drill.

[z] – moves, burns, revolves, ensures

[iz] – reaches, hushes, closes, compresses

[s] – heats, consists, ignites, competes


2. Read and translate the sentences:

a). - The compressed mixture is ignited by a spark.

- The mixture compressed to a high pressure is ignited by a spark.

- When fully compressed the fuel0air mixture is ignited by a spark.

- The fuel-air mixture is compressed by a moving piston.

b). – The burn gases are hushed out of the cylinder.

- A spark from the plug ignites the heated mixture.

- When heated the gases from the explosion expend and hush the piston down.

- The gases formed are heated greatly.

- The third cycle called power stroke is the stroke when the crankshaft is revolved.

- The BDC reached the piston starts moving in the opposite direction.


3. Read and translate the word combinations.

- the piston compressing the mixture

- the compressed mixture

- the spark igniting the mixture

- the ignited mixture

- the revolving crankshaft

- the crankshaft revolved by the moving piston

- the heated gases


4. Find the proper definitions to the words in the left column:

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