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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

Ценовые и неценовые факторы

Характеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы


Обучение письму и письменной речи 3 страница

1. stroke a. the position of the piston at the top of the stroke;

2. piston b. the position of the piston at the bottom of the stroke;

3. working fluid c. the part that moves up and down in automotive engine;

4. top dead center d. the ratio of total volume to clearance volume.

5. bottom dead center e. a distance traveled by the piston in the cylinder;

6. compression ratio f. a mixture of fuel, air and burnt gases;


5. Make sentences using the table:

the piston moves up the fuel-air mixture is sucked into the cylinder.

the piston moves down the burnt gases are pushed out of the cylinder.

the inlet valve is open the inlet valve is closed.

When the exhaust valve is open the fuel-air mixture is fully compressed.

the piston reaches the TDC a spark runs across the spark plug.

the piston reaches the BDC the working fluid is formed in the cylinder.


6. Read and translate the text


An engine produces power by burning air and fuel. The fuel is stored in a fuel tank. The fuel tank is connected to a fuel pipe. The fuel pipe carries the fuel to a fuel pimp. The fuel pump is connected to the carburetor. The fuel pump pumps the fuel into the carburetor. In the carburetor the fuel is mixed with air. The fuel and air are drawn into the engine cylinder by the piston. Then the fuel and air are compressed by the piston and ignited by the spark plug. They burn ,and expand very quickly and push the piston down. Thus the power is produced. The burned fuel and air are expelled from the cylinder by the piston.

The flow of gases into and out of the cylinder is controlled by two valves. There is an inlet valve allowing fresh fuel mixture into the cylinder and an exhaust valve which allows the burnt gases to escape.

There are two basic engine operating cycles: the four-stroke cycle and the two-stroke cycle. The complete four-stroke cycle comprises: l)the induction stroke (the piston moves downwards); 2) the compression stroke (the piston moves upwards); 3) the power stroke (the piston moves downwards); 4) the exhaust stroke (the piston moves upwards).



7. Fill in the table according the text:
Part (unit) Its function
English Russian. English Russian.
1. the engine двигатель to produce power Вырабатывать мощность
2. the fuel tank     хранить топливо
3. топливный насос    
4. the carburetor      
5.   to ignite the charge  
6. поршень    
7. the inlet valve      
8.     Обеспечивать выход отработанных газов

8. Put the verbs in the right order according to the text, so that you

can describe the engine operation:

to compress the mixture, to store the fuel in the fuel tank, to mix the fuel and air, to ignite the mixture, to pump the fuel into the carburetor, to draw the mixture into the cylinders, to carry the fuel to the fuel pump, to push the piston down, to produce the power



1. Phonetic drill:

cycle, stroke, compression, suction, exhaust, induction, inlet, valve, cylinder, mixture, fluid, pressure, formation, efficient, ignition, expansion, plug, amount, explosion, push, center, operation


2. Read and translate the sentences:

- The piston moving up the cylinder compresses the fuel-air mixture.

- The fuel-air mixture is compressed by a moving piston to a high pressure.

- A spark running across the spark plug ignites the fuel-air mixture.

- The mixture is ignited by a spark.


3. Open the brackets using Active or Passive.

- The piston (to revolve) the crankshaft.

- The crankshaft (to revolve) by a moving piston.

- The moving piston (to hush out) the burnt gases through the exhaust valve.

- The burnt gases (to push out) through the open outlet valve.

- The heated gases (to push down) the piston.

- The piston (to push down) by the expended gases.


4. Fill in the blanks with the necessary verb:

a). compresses, is compressed, compressed, compressing

During the second stroke the piston moves up and …. the fuel-air mixture. The mixture … to a high pressure. When the piston reaches the TDC a spark runs across the spark plug igniting the … mixture.

b). forms, formed, is formed, forming

During the first stroke the fuel-air mixture is mixed with burnt gases … the so-called working fluid. In the second stroke high pressure … by a moving piston. In the third stroke the gases … after the explosion are heated greatly.


5. Complete the proportions:


Up = in = ? = open =inlet = ? = depression

a. down ? bottom ? ? exhaust ?


piston = crankshaft = ? = spark = ? = mixture

b. moves ? opens ? expend ?



6. Read and translate the text. Fill in the gaps in the text using Figure 2 and the given words (in the Present Simple Tense, both the Active and the Passive Voice).

To compress, the mixture, to push downwards, the spark, to push, to ignite, the cylinder, to come, the inlet valve, to close, to start again, downwards, to open, to prevent, to rotate, to return, the top



The Induction Stroke: The cycle starts with the piston at t.d.c. As the inlet valve opens, the piston ____ ____ by the rotating crankshaft. The fuel mixture enters ___. When the piston comes to the top of the stroke,____closes.


The Compression Stroke: The rotation of the crankshaft ____ the piston upwards again. During the compression stroke, the fuel ____ ____. Both valves are now __ and thus the mixture __ __ from escaping. The compression heats __ before ignition occurs.

The Power Stroke: ____ from the spark plug ____ the heated mixture as the piston comes to____of its stroke. The burning gases expand and force the piston ___ again. This stroke ____ the crankshaft through half____ (180 ).

The Exhaust Stroke: As the piston comes to b.d.c, the exhaust valve ____. The rotating crankshaft _____ the piston to t.d.c. again, expelling the burnt gas through the top of the cylinder. When the piston____to t.d.c, the cycle __ ___. In a vehicle engine this cycle is repeated several thousand times a minute.



7. Fill in the table.

The number of the stroke The name of stroke The position of valves The motion of the piston The process in the combustion chamber
        Suction (induction)     both inlet and exhaust valves are closed   the piston moves down   the exhaust gases are pushed out of the cylinder

8.Are these sentences true or false (according the 2 texts)? Explain the translation of "as".

1) The operating cycle starts when the piston is at the b.d.c..

2) The compression stroke takes place when both valves are closed.

3) The compression stroke got its name because during this stroke the mixture is compressed by the crankshaft.

4) As the mixture is compresses it is ignited by the spark plug.

5) As during the third stroke power is produced this stroke is called the power stroke.

6) When the piston comes to b.d.c. the inlet and the exhaust valves open and the burnt gases are expelled from the cylinder by the piston.

9. Use the dictionary to find the meaning of these new words:

Superheater, governor, spring, steam, weight;

To raise, to depress, to perform, to serve as, to act as.

A means of — средство чего-либо, a way of — способ


10. These models are used to speak about function and duty. Make sentences and reproduce them.

The function of the superheater is to raise the temperature of the steam
  The duty     the governor     control the engine speed
        the spring     keep the depressed weights
The superheater has the function of raising the steam temperature
  The governor performs the duty     controlling the speed engine
  The spring           keeping the depressed weights
The superheater serves to raise the temperature of the steam
  The governor     control the engine speed
  The spring     keep the weights depressed  
The superheater serves as a means of raising the steam temperature  
  The governor acts as a method of controlling the engine speed  
  The spring is used as a way of keeping the weights depressed  




1. Read the pairs of words and translate.

Much – more costly – more costly as much as

Little – less powerful – more powerful as efficient as

Safe – safer efficient – more efficient as powerful as

Cheap – cheaper economical – more economical

Great – greater volatile – more volatile

Long – longer expensive – less expensive

High – higher

Simple – simpler

Heavy – heavier



2. Match the columns to make sentences. Reproduce them.

l. Most automobile engines operate... 2.This cycle comprises... 3.The first stroke starts with the piston... 4.The fuel mixture in the cylinder is depressed and ignited... 5.The piston is pushed downwards... 6.The crankshaft rotates... 7.Thus power... 8.The burnt gases are expelled... 9.The flow of gases into and out of the cylinder is controlled by two valves... ...through 180*   ...the inlet valve and the exhaust valve   ...from the cylinder   ...on the four-stroke cycle   ...is produced   ...at t.d.c.   ...by the burnt gases   ...by the spark plug   ...the induction stroke, the compression stroke, the power stroke and the exhaust stroke


3. Mach the two columns:

1. much a. small

2. large b. light

3. long c. dangerous

4. quick d. complex

5. safe e. costly

6. simple f. short

7. noisy g. slow

8. heavy h. quiet

9. cheap i. little

j. expensive

4. Read the text and translate it.

inventor - изобретатель

oil - масло

to blow - продувать

to inject - впрыскивать

to explode - взрывать

immediately - немедленно

advantage - преимущество

blower - вентилятор, нагнетатель

previous -предыдущий

to raise - поднимать

volatile – летучий, улетучивающийся




A diesel engine (named after its inventor) is like a gasoline engine but simpler. The fuel used in a diesel engine is oil.

In a diesel engine, only air is blown into the cylinder. It is compressed by the piston till it becomes very hot. At that moment oil is injected into the compressed air. The air is so hot that the oil explodes immediately. It does not need spark plugs. The explosions push the pistons and turn the crankshaft as in gasoline engine.

Diesel engine can be four-stoke ones and two-stroke ones. In two-stroke engines every second stroke (and not every fourth as in four-stroke engines) is a power stroke. This is a real advantage as the two-stroke engine gives more power.

In a two-stroke diesel, as the piston moves down, a powerful blower blows air through vales into the cylinder.

As it comes in, the air pushes out the used gases from the previous explosion. The valves shut and the piston moves up, compressing the air and raising its temperature to about 1000 F.

At that moment oil is injected by a powerful pump. The oil explodes and the hot gases push the piston down. As ft comes up again air is blown and the used gases are pushed out once more.

5. Make sentences using the table and translate them.


  diesel engines are more   - they use less volatile fuel.
  efficient   - they require fuel injection.
    diesel engines are more   - they give more power for each gallon of fuel than gasoline engines.
I economical because - they produce lass noise and vibration.
  diesel engines are safer as - they use lass fuel and last longer.
think     - they use cheaper fuel than petrol.
  diesel engines are heavy for - they are made to withstand (выдерживать) high cylinder pressure
that   diesel engines are cost1y   and temperature.
      - they are more powerful.
  diesel engines are simpler    
      - they don't need carburettors and
  trucks are commonly powered by diesel engine   ignition system.
  cars are commonly powered    
  by gasoline engine    



1. Phonetic drill.

complex, more, most, shorter, larger, design, truck, cheaper, service, noisy, heavy, efficient, dangerous

2. Compare two types of engines. Make sentences.

… is simpler / more complex in design than ...

… is larger / smaller than ...

... is more / less costly than ...

… uses cheaper / more costly fuel than ...

… is heavier / lighter than …

… is more / less efficient than ...

… is more / less economical than …

... is more / less powerful than ...

... is safer / more dangerous than ...

... has a longer / shorter service life than ...

… starts quicker / more, slowly than ...

3. Choose the sentences which describe carburetor and diesel engines.

1. It is an internal combustion engine.

2. It is a reciprocating engine.

3. It is a compression ignition engine.

4. It is a spark ignition engine.

5. It can use any kind of fuel.

6. It operates on petrol.

7. It consumes diesel oil.

8. It is an engine with outer mixing.

9. It is an engine with inner mixing.

10. It hasa carburettor.

11. It hasan injection pump and injector.

12. It hasan ignition system.


4. Fill in the gaps. Compare two types of engines.


The cumber of the stroke gasoline engine diese1 engine
  ... is sucked into the combustion ... is blown Into
chamber through .. . valve. the cylinder.
  ... is compressed by a ... is compressed to a high
moving .... ... by a moving piston.
  … is ignited by a ... . ... is injected into the cylinder
The gases formed push ... down. and is ignited from contact
  The piston revolves the ... . with … .
  The ... ... are pushed out of the  
cylinder through the … valve.  


5. Study the words, give their Russian equivalents using the dictionary:

to choose (chose, chosen)

on the average

to last

to tend

to require

to contribute



to handle


6. Read and translate the text:

"Diesel Engine".

Diesels generally become competitive with engines above 30 hp. They are normally chosen because of their operating economy and greater curability. In general, a diesel costs about 2 ½ times as much as a gasoline engine, but on the average a diesel lasts about 2 1/2 times longer. Besides being more costly than gasoline engines, diesels also lend to produce more noise and vibration. They require fuel injection which contributes to their higher cost. Diesel fuel is less volatile than gasoline and, therefore, safer to handle.



1. Phonetic drill.

[ ] – serve, skirt, surface, insert, convert

[i:] – each, seat, wheel, between, easy

[ai] – guide, liner, provide, fly

[ou] – chrome, bolt, control, oval

each – head – great – wear – bearing – gear

2. Read and translate.

move – immovable replace – replaceable

axle – axial cylinder – cylindrical centrifuge – centrifugal

out – outer in – inner up – upper

to start – starter to expend – expender to pass – passage

to compress – compression to lubricate – lubrication

3. Read and translate the sentences.

1. The engine cylinder block made of cast iron is fitted with wet liners,

2. The crankshaft is provided with oil clearing traps closed with plugs.

3. The flywheel provided with ring gear intended for starting the engine by the starter la attached to the crankshaft.

4. The bronze bush pressed in the connecting rod small end is designed for achieving its durability.


4. Fill in the gaps with the words below.

move, moving, mover, motion, removed, immovable.

The engine is the prime ... of an automobile. The piston and connecting rod assembly ... up and down in the cylinder. ... down the cylinder the piston revolves the crankshaft. By means of crank gear the reciprocation ... of the piston is converted into rotating ... of the crankshaft.

The crank gear consists of ... and mobile details. One of the ... details is the cylinder block. It is fitted with inserted wet liners that can be ... and replaced.


5. Study the classification of the materials. Make sentences.

Engineering materials

Metal Non-metals

Ferrous metals Non-ferrous metals Plastics Ceramics

iron aluminium

steel copper

cast-iron bronze




6. Study the words:

Crank gear – кривошипно-шатунный механизм

Reciprocating motion – поворотно-поступательное движение

Crankshaft – коленчатый вал

Immovable – неподвижный

Crankcase – картер

Cast iron –чугун

To fit – снабжать, оборудовать

To insert – вставлять

Liner – гильза

Replaceable – заменяемый

Alloy – сплав

Guide – направляющая (клапана)

To secure – прикреплять

Piston pin – поршневой палец

Connecting rod – шатун

Flywheel – маховик

Tinplated – покрытый оловом

Oval ground – овальный

Skirt – юбка

U-slot – U-образный прорез

Surface – поверхность

Compound – составной

Floating - плавящий

Lock ring – стопорное кольцо

Bearing – опора, подшипник

Harden – закаливать

Crankpin journal – шатунная шейка

Trap - ловушка

Latter – последний (из двух)

Plug – пробка

Ring gear – зубчатый венец

To attach – крепить



7. Read the text and translate.


Crank Gear.

Crank gear serves for converting reciprocating motion of the piston into rotating motion of the crankshaft.

Crank gear consists of immovable and movable details. Immovable details are cylinder head, cylinder block and crankcase.

The engine cylinder block is made of cast iron. It is fitted with grey-iron inserted t wet liners that are easily replaceable.

The cylinder heads are made of aluminium alloy and provided with inserted valve seats and valve guides. Each cylinder head is secured to the cylinder block by seventeen bolts.

The mobile details are piston with piston rings, piston pins, connecting rods, crankshaft and flywheel.

The pistons are made of aluminium alloy and tinplated. The pistons have an oval-ground skirt and two U-slots between the head and skirts.

Each piston is provided with four piston rings: three compression rings and an oil control ring. Two upper compression rings are chrome-plated on the outer cylindrical surface. The compound oil control ring consists of two flat steel disks and two expanders of axial and radial type.

The piston rods are made of steel. Each piston pin is fixed in the piston by twoo lock rings.

The connecting rods are made of steel. They are of double-T section. The connecting rod big end is fitted with steel, aluminium thin-welled shells. A bronze bush is pressed in the connecting rod small end.

The cast-iron flywheel with steel ring gear intended for starting the engine by the starter is attached to the crankshaft rear end flange by six bolts.


8. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What does crank gear serve for?

2. What does it consist of?

3. What are the immovable details

4. What are the mobile details?

5. What are all the details made of?


9. Ask your partner other questions for more information.

10. Look at the picture and name the parts of crank gear.

Crank Gear

1. V-belt arrive pulley – шкив клиноременной передачи

2. crankshaft – коленчатый вал

3. chain arrive star – звездочка цепной передачи

4. piston – поршень


11. Make a plane of the text.

12. Retell the text according to your plan.



1. Phonetic drill.

Gear, bearing, shaft, trap, insert, surface, journal, leaner, iron, flywheel, replaceable.


2. Reading drill.

Crank: crank gear, crankshaft, crankpin, crankcase.

Piston: piston rings, piston pin, piston head, piston skirt.

Rod: connecting rod, connecting rod small end, connecting rod big end


3. Classify the metals:

a. ferrous metals b. non-ferrous metals c. non-metals

steel, bronze, tin, rubber, cast-iron, aluminium, chrome, grey-iron, asbestos, iron, carbon



4. Classify the details:

a. immovable details b. mobile details

piston, piston pins, crankcase, crankshaft, cylinder head, flywheel, connecting rods, cylinder block


5. Give definitions to the following metals:

1. Iron - a white metal much used because of its lightness;

2. Cast iron - a soft metal mostly used in alloys;

3. Steel - a brown alloy of copper and tin with a low coefficient of friction;

4. Bronze - an alloy of iron and carbon of heavy weight and great rigidity;

5. Aluminium - an alloy of iron and smaller proportion of carbon of great

hardness and elasticity;

6. Tin - a metal much used for coating steels to make them resistant to corrosion;

7. Chrome - a white metal much used for coating iron to protect it from corrosion.


6. Choose the words which do not belong to the row:

  1. bronze, aluminium, cast iron, wet, chrome, grey iron, steel, flat, tin;
  2. compression rings, piston rings, oil-control ring, ring gear, flat steel disc, axial expenders, lock rings, radial expanders;
  3. bearings, passages for lubrication, main journal, oil clearing traps, flags, U-slots, crankpin journals, thin-welled shells, bronze bushes.



7. Using the table explain why the following details are made of this or that material.

    I think that   I don’t think that cylinder block   cylinder linear   cylinder heads   crankcase   piston   piston rings   connecting rods   crankshaft   flywheel   bushes   is/are made of     should be made of     should be cast of     should be plated with   cast iron   grey iron   steel   aluminium   alloy   bronze   tin   chrome     because as     it has high resistance to wear. it has high resistance to corrosion. it resists high temperature. it reduce the weight of the engine. it has a low coefficient of friction. it has a high thermal conductivity. it is light. it is heavy. it is hard.

8. Using the table say what parts of the crank gear has this or that detail:

  Cylinder block   Piston   Connecting rod big end   Connecting rod small end   Flywheel   Crankshaft     is/are provided with     is/are fitted with passages   steel ring gear   thin-welled shells   bronze bush   oil control ring   liners   compression rings   piston pin   - to start the engine by the starter. - to achieve maximum durability. - to ensure the sealing of the piston in the cylinder. - to remove the excess of oil from the cylinder walls. - to deliver oil to the crankshaft bearings. - to reduce friction between the connecting rod and crankshaft. - to connect the piston to the connecting rod. - to increase resistance to wear.  



1. Phonetic drill:

[ei] [ ] [a:]

face cam arm

locate band part

rotate tappet shaft

arrange manifold cast

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