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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

Ценовые и неценовые факторы

Характеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы

КАТЕГОРИИ:






Обучение письму и письменной речи 4 страница




actuate

 

2. Word building:

up - upper

to arrange - arrangement

to actuate - actuator

to serve - service - to service

to rotate - rotor - rotation

to distribute - distributor - distribution

to extend - extension - extensive

metal - metallic - metallic

to resist - resistor - resistance – resistant

to drive - drive - driver – driving - driven

to mix – mixer – mixture – mixing – mixed

 

3. Translate the words and word combinations:

cam: camshaft, camshaft gear, camshaft drive;

goar: timing gear, camshaft gear, crankshaft gear, ignition distributor drive gear;

valve: valve rocker, valve tappets, exhaust valve rotating mechanism, valve head, valve stem.

 

4. Name the details made of:

a) steel b) aluminium C) iron

Intake manifold, tappets, exhaust valve, camshaft, intake valve, tappet rod, valve rockers, exhaust manifolds.

 

 

5. Используя два списка слов, дайте характеристики компонентов распределительного механизма.


bushings, cams, rockers, valves, tappets, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, tappet rods.

 

полые, биметаллические, стальные, кованные, общие для обоих рядов цилиндров, закаленные, составные, верхнего расположения, бронзовые

 

6. Match the two columns.

1. ensure a. снабжать

2. extend b. передавать

3. arrange c. располагать

4. make d. приводить в действие

5. rotate e. служить

6. provide f. обеспечивать

7. actuate g. продлять

8. rest h. изготавливать

9. transmit i. управлять

10. control j. опираться

11. serve k. вращаться

12. drive

 

7. Learn the words.

Timing gear – распределительный механизм

Camshaft – распределительный вал


Tappet – толкатель

Tappet rod – штанга толкателя

Valve rocker – коромысло клапана

Manifold – коллектор, трубопровод

Tempered – закаленный

Distributor – распределитель

Rest – опираться

Bushing – вкладыш

Arrange – располагать

Row – ряд

Actuate – приводить в действие

Heat-resistant – жаростойкий

Extend – удлинять (период)

Positively – принудительно

Forged – кованный

Hollow – полый

Layer – слой

Common – общий

Compound – составной


 

8. Read the text and translate it:

Timing Gear

Timing gear ensures the inlet of the fuel-air into the cylinder and outlet of the burnt gases. Timing consists of camshaft, camshaft drive, valves. tappets, tappet

rods valve rockers intake and exhaust manifolds.

The camshaft is steel. It is provided with tempered and the ignition distributor drive gear. The camshaft is driven by two gears. It rests on five bearings provided bushings made of a bimetallic band.

The valves are upper. They are arranged in the cylinder head in one row. The valves are actuated from the camshaft by means of tappet rods, tappets and rocker arms. The valves are made of heat-resistant steel. For extending the service; life the exhaust valve is positively rotated by moans of special mechanism (exhaust valve rotating machanism).

The valve rockers are forged. steel with bronze bushings.

The steel valve tappets are hollow with a layer of special cast iron on the tappet and face.

The steel tappet rods are provided with tempered spherical ends.

The intake manifold is of aluminium alloy. It is common for both rows of cylinders and located between the cylinder heads. The exhaust manifolds (right and left) are compound. They are made of forged iron.

LESSON 23.

1. Phonetic drill:

[ou] [o] [o:]

both rod short

row bronze forged

hollow rocker cause

manifold positive exhaust

 

2. Continue the sentences.

1. The camshaft gear actuates the ....

2. The tappets lift the ... .

3. The rocker arm lifts the ... .

4. The crankshaft gear makes the ... rotate.

5. The spring returns the ... to its seat.

6. The tappet rods drive the ... .

7. The cams lift the … .

3. Read the text

Camshaft Drive

On a 4-stroke engine the inlet and outlet valves open once during the working cycle, i.e. for every two revolutions of the crankshaft.

Consequently, the camshaft should do one revolution for every two revolutions of the crankshaft.

Hence, the camshaft must rotate at half the speed of the crankshaft.

Therefore, the diameter of the camshaft sear is two times larger than that of the crank gear.

 

4. Retell the text.

5. Using the table say what components of the timing gear correspond to this or that detail.

 

The valve   The exhaust valve   The valve rocker   The camshaft short arm   The camshaft bearings   Tappet   Tappet rod   is/are provided with     is/are fitted with special rotating mechanism   adjusting screw   springs   bushings of bimetallic band   bronze bushing   a layer of special cast-iron   tempered spherical ends to lift the tappet.   to return the valve to its seat.   to achieve maximum durability.   to adjust the clearance between the valve and rocker arm.   to protect it from wear.   to increase its resistance to wear.

 

LESSON 23.

1. Make sentences using the table.

  exhaust valve should have    
  a greater clearance   - they are simple and cheap to replace when they are worn
  the valves are made of   (изнашивается).
  heat-resistant steal   - valve knocking is
      heard.
As far as I the valves move in    
know cast iron valve guides   - it expands more than
    because inlet valve.
  it is necessary to    
As far adjust the clearances as - the engine operates with incorrectly set clearances.
an I the timing gear parts    
understand will wear out   - the clearance between the
      valve stem and rocker arm is not correct.
       
  the valve head will not seat   - the engine is lifted
  properly   with overhead camshaft (верхнего распределения).
  tappet rods and rocker    
  arms are not necessary    
       

 

2. Solve the crossword.

Down:

1. It serves for converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into revolving motion of crankshaft.

2. It ensures the inlet of the fuel-air mixture and outlet of burnt gear.

across

1. It contains the main parts of the crank gear.

2. It is lifted in the cylinder block toincrease its resistance to wear(износиз).

3. It serves to connect the piston to the connecting rod.

4. It is a component of the clutch.

5. It transmits the torque from the connecting rod to the flywheel.

6. They are used to ensure the seating of the piston in the cylinder.

7. It serves to transmit the effort (усилие) from the camshaft to the tappet rod.

8. The valve that has a larger diameter.

9. It controls the opening and closing of the vulvas.

10. It serves to drive the crankshaft.

11. It serves to actuate the tappet.

12. It serves to open/close the valve.

 

LESSON 24.

1. Word-building


a) to combine - combination

to pass - passage

to press – pressure

to deliver - delivery

to splash - splashing

b) centrifuge - centrifugal

tube – tubular

up - upper

low - lower


c) to react - reactive - reaction

to cool - cooler - coolant - cooling - cooled

to lubricate - lubrication –lubricant –

lubricating

d) pump - to pump

filter - to filter

clean - to clean

to spilt - split (adj) – sp[it (n)


2. Reading drill:

a) Lubricating system b) functions

oil to deliver oil

oil intake to lubricate the friction surfaces

oil pump to contain oil

oil pump lower section to pump\force oil

oil pump upper section to clean oil

oil filter reactive drive centrifuge to cool oil

3. Fill in the blanks:

to lubricate - lubricant - lubrication - lubricating - lubricated;

lubricates - is lubricated

The ... system serves for ...the friction surfaces of the engine during its operation. Some details ... under pressure. To the others ... is delivered by splashing and gravity. The oil … camshaft gear by gravity while camshaft bearings … under pressure. ... the crankshaft bearings, the oil passes through passages in the crankshaft.

 

4. Say what details given below are lubricated:

a. under pressure b. by gravity c. by splashing

cams, tappets, camshaft gear, crankshaft gear, piston pins, crankpin bearings, crankshaft main-bearings, cylinder walls.

 

5. Solve the crossword:

down

1. A process of delivering oil to the friction natal surface during its operation.

across

2. One of the possible ways of lubrication.

3. It serves to force oil in the engine.

4. A part of the oil filter.

5. It serves for making the oil clean.

6. A detail of the oil pump.

7. It serves to deliver oil from the oil pan to the pump.

8. A lubricant.

9. It serves to contain oil.

 

6. Learn the words:


to lubricate – смазывать

to deliver – подавать

surface – поверхность

splashing – разбрызгивание

by gravity – самотеком

oil pan – поддон картера

passage – проход

split – разъемный

tubular – трубчатый


 

7. Read the text? Translate and retell it.

Lubricating System

Lubricating system serves to deliver oil to all the friction metal surfaces of the engine during its operating. The engine ZIL-131 is provided with the combination-type lubricating system, that’s some details are lubricated under pressure, to the others oil is delivered by splashing or gravity.

Lubricating system consists of the oil pump, oil pan, oil intake, oil filter, oil cooler and oil passages.

The oil pump is of two-section gear type. The upper section of the pump delivers oil into the engine lubricating system through the centrifuge. The oil pump lower section pumps oil into the oil cooler.

The oil pan is of split type.

The oil filter is of centrifugal type. It serves to clean oil in the lubricating system. The oil filter is provided with the reactive drive centrifuge.

The oil cooler is of tubular, air cooled type. It is installed before the main radiator of the engine cooling system. The function of the oil cooler is to cool oil to the lubricating system.

 

Cooling system and lubricating system – система охлаждения и смазки

2. gear-type pump – шестеренчатый насос

7. pressure-control valve – редукционный клапан

8. centrifugal connection – центробежный фильтр

9. manometer connection – подключение манометра

10. temperature indicator connection – подключение указателя температуры

11. main channel – магистральный канал

15. rocker axle – ось коромысла

16. liquid coller – радиатор жидкостного охлаждения

18. thermostat – термостат

19. water pump – водяной насос

20. temperature indicator – датчик температуры, установленный на выходе охлаждающей жидкости

22. oil circulation – циркуляция масла

23. cooling liquid circulation – циркуляция охлаждающей жидкости

 

LESSON 25.

 

1. Phonetic drill:

In the piston bosses to the filter

In the connecting rod shank to the camshaft bearings

In the connecting rod small end to the camshaft main bearings

 

into the pump through passages

into the distribution chamber through a special hole

into the longitudinal main passages through a fixed oil intake

 

from a pan into the cylinder walls

from the cylinder walls inside the piston

from the L.H. passages

 

2. Reading drill:

a) Types of details: b) Methods of lubrication:

combination type under pressure

split type by gravity

two-section gear type by splashing

centrifugal type piston pins

tubular air-cooled type camshaft gear

crankshaft gear

camshaft bearings

crankshaft main bearings

cams

tappets

cylinder wells

 

    Lubricating system   Oil pan   Oil pump   Oil cooler   Oil filter     of tubular type   centrifugal type   combination type   gear type   air-cooled type   two-section type   split type   that is     in other words - air serves for reducing the temperature of the lubricant; - it comprises a number of tubes; - oil is cleaned under the force of the reactive drive centrifuge; - friction surfaces are lubricated in different ways; - it comprises two gears: driving – for sucking the oil and driven – for pumping it into the oil passage; - it consists of two chambers; - it can be divided into 2 parts

3.Speak about the types of details using the table.

4. Using the table explain the necessity of this or that action.

  It is necessary   It is important   It is required   to clean oil to check oil level to cool oil to equip the engine with the oil pump to lubricate the friction metal surfaces to provide an oil pressure pump on the instrument panel to change oil periodically   because     when   in order to - it becomes hot during the engine operation; - to deliver oil to some details under pressure; - vehicle is placed on the level ground; - it gets contaminated (загрязняться) with particles of dirt metal, water; - to reduce the friction between moving parts; - too high or too low pressure are the symptoms of abnormal engine operation; -the engine is cold.

 

LESSON 26.

1. Phonetic drill:

[a:] [i:] [a:] [o:] [u:]

dirt feed part form through

furnish each particle install move

vertical clean larger before removable

inertia sealed carburetor auxiliary

lever

[t ] - switch, chamber, mixture, century

[ ] – ensure, inertia, furnish

 

2. Reading drill. International words:

pump, front, final, plastic, element, vertical, balanced, (to) operated, diaphragm, ceramic, eccentric, carburetor

 

3. Fill in the blanks using the words below:

On, to, into, between, for, with, by, by means of, through, of, under

The fuel feed system is provided ... the fuel pump ... diaphragm type. It serves … delivering fuel … the. carburettor. The pump is mounted … the left upper part … the engine. The pump consists ... three parts. The diaphragm is located ... the head and the housing. Its function is to push rod ... two disks. The return spring, is installed ... the diaphragm. The pump is driven … a camshaft eccentric … a rod.

 

4. Read the text and translate it.

Word list


to furnish - снабжать

sealed –герметизированный

bracket - кронштейн

cock –кран

downdraft - падающий поток

settling bowl - отстойник

venture –диффузор

foam -пена


 

Fuel Feed System

The fuel feed system serves to make ready the fuel-air mixture and to deliver it into the engine cylinders.

The engine ZIL-131 is furnished with a positive fuel feed system: fuel is delivered by the fuel pump.

The fuel feed system consists of fuel tanks, fuel pump, fuel filters, carburetor and air cleaner.

The fuel pump is of diaphragm, sealed type, provided with a hand-operated priming lever. It is installed on the lift upper part of the engine and actuated by a camshaft eccentric through a rod. The pump consists of three main parts: cover, head and housing. The diaphragm is between the housing and the head.

The fuel filter-settler is mounted on the front bracket of the fuel tank. It comprises a filter-settler bowl and filtering element, the latter consists of a great number of aluminium plates. The filter-settler cleans fuel of larger particles of dirt.

The final fuel filter is installed on the engine before the carburetor. It comprises a ceramic filtering element and a removable plastic settling bowl.

The fuel tanks, main and auxiliary, are located on both sides of the frame under the platform. The fuel tanks are switched over by means of a three-way cock mounted on the bracket of the main fuel tank filter-settler.

The carburetor serves to make ready the fuel-air mixture. The engine ZIL-131 is provided with the carburetor of vertical downdraft type. The carburetor is provided with a balanced float chamber. It has two mixing chambers, each provided with two ventures.

The air-cleaner is of foam-and-oil inertia type ensuring three-stage cleaning of air.

 

 

LESSON 27.

1. Word-building


ceramic – ceramics

plastic – plastics

to deliver – delivery

to remove – removal –removable

 

house – to house – housing

to clean – cleaner – clearing

to settle – settler – settling

 


2. Find the synonyms:

1. furnish a. prepare

2. install b. provide

3. feed c. drive

4. actuate d. consist

5. comprise e. filter

6. make ready f. mount

7. ensure g. deliver

8. clean

 

3. Make sentences using the table.

 

    In order to     to clean air from dust to clean fuel of larger particles of dirt to clean fuel of smaller particles of dirt to store the fuel to deliver fuel into the carburettor to make ready the fuel-air mixture to switch over the fuel tanks   to actuate the fuel pump     the engine     the vehicle   the camshaft is provided with   is fitted with   is furnished with   is equipped with   carburattor.   accentric.   fuel tanks.   air cleaner.   three-way cock.   filter-settler.   fuel pump.   final fuel filter.

 

4. Read the translate the text.

Fuel filer-settler.

Care of the fuel filter-settler consists in draining water and dirt through the drain plug as well as in disassembling and flushing the filtering element.

For flushing the filtering element unscrew the bolt on the filter cover and remove the bowl together with the filtering element. Having unscrewed and emptied the settler, wash it with clean gasoline. Having flushed the filtering element reinstall it and tighten the bolt on the cover.


to assemble - собирать

to clean - чистить

to drain - сливать

to empty – опорожнять

to flush - промывать

to remove - снимать


to screw - привинчивать

to wash - промывать

to tighten - затягивать



5. Write an instruction using the text above.

1. Unscrew the bolt on the filter cover.

2. Remove the bolt with the filtering element.

3. Drain water and dirt.

4. Unscrew the drain plug.

5. Tighten the bolt on the cover.

6. Flush the filtering element with clean gasoline.

7. Reinstall the filtering element.

6. Make sentences using the table:

The engine turns but will not fire

 

 

LESSON 28.

1. Phonetic drill. International words:

tube, fan, front, (to) drain; oral, normal, section, jacket; radiator, thermostat, temperature;

(to) control, (to) assist, centrifugal; circulation, automatically.

2. Read and translate:

N+N

Radiator shutters, drain cock, drive belt, water jacket, cooling jacket, rubber gasket, air flow, branch pipe, crankshaft pulley

N+ N +… +N

Water pump shaft, sweep-back blades; cylinder block water jacket, cylinder head water jacket.

Adj+N+…+N

Normal temperature conditions, oval section tube, cylinder block front end face; tubular-band four row radiator.

N+…+V+ed+N

Spring-loaded seal, 1iquid-sealud forced-circulation cooling system.

3. Read the text and fill in the blanks with the words below:

cool (adj) cooler coolant cooling cooled is cooled

... system is a necessary part of an engine. Most car engines are liquid - ... . The ... may be water or an antifreeze. Water circulates around the engine. As a result, an engine ... and water is heated. The hot water enters the radiator where it ... by air. The ... water -is pumped around the engine again.

4. Study the words.

Word list

to maintain – обслуживать, содержать в исправности

to be equipped – быть оборудованным, оснащенным


sealed - уплотненный

jacket - рубашка

fan – вентилятор

pipe - трубка

impeller – насосное колесо

pulley - шкив

to assist – помогать, ассистировать

particularly – в особенности

blade – лопасть, крыло

tube - труба

to be secured – быть обеспеченным

rubber - резиновый

gasket - прокладка

solid –плотный, твердый, массивный

shutter - жалюзи

to adjust – регулировать, подгонять


 

5. Read and translate the text.

Cooling System

The function of the cooling system is to maintain normal temperature conditions of the engine operation. The engine ZIL-131 is equipped with a liquid sealed forced-circulation cooling system.

The cooling system includes cylinder block and cylinder head water jackets, fan with drive belt, water pump, thermostat, radiator, radiator shutters, pipes and drain cocks.

The water pump is of centrifugal type. It is mounted on the front end face of the cylinder block. The pump consists of three main parts: body, shaft with impeller and spring-loaded seal. The water pump shaft is driven frost the crankshaft pulley through a V-belt.

The fan serves to assist the air flow through the radiator particularly when the vehicle is moving slowly. The fan has six sweep-back blades. The fan is driven from the crankshaft pulley through a V-belt.

The radiator is of tubular-band, four-row type with oval section tubes. It is secured to the frame of the vehicle on rubber gaskets in front of the engine.

The thermostat serves to control automatically the temperature of the engine. The engine ZIL-131 is provided with a solid filler type of thermostat. It is arranged between the upper and lower branch pipes of the cooling jacket.

The radiator shutters serve for adjusting the air flow passing through the radiator. They are arranged In front of the radiator. The shutters are controlled from the driver's cab.

6. Remember the details.

 

6. Give a short summary of the text.

 

 

LESSON 29.

 

1. Phonetic drill, word-building:

a) tube - tubular to fill – filter slow - slowly

norm – normal to shut – shutter automatic - automatically

centrifuge – centrifugal to circulate – circulation particular – particularly

to maintain - maintenance

to arrange – arrangement

to adjust - adjustment

 

b) flow - to flow c) to seal - seal - scaling

force - to force to drive - drive - driver

control - to control to assist - assistant – assistance

 

2. Find the equivalents of the verbs.

  1. to maintain 1. принуждать
  2. to equip 2. двигаться
  3. to seal 3. уплотнять
  4. to force 4. помогать, содействовать
  5. to drive 5. располагать
  6. to assist 6. поддерживать, эксплуатировать
  7. to move 7. удалять
  8. to secure 8. управлять
  9. to control 9. регулировать
  10. to arrange 10. приводить в движение
  11. to adjust 11. снабжать
  12. to pass 12. прикреплять

13. оснащать

14. проходить

 

  Cooling system   Water pump   Thermostat   Radiator   Fan   Radiator shutters     is/are of six-blade type   tubular-band type   centrifugal type   liquid type   flap type   four-row type   closed type   solid filler type force-circulation type     that is   in other words   - it is filled with the solid material – cerosine - it comprises the radiator with the filler neck cap of sealed type. - it consists of six sweep-back blades. - the coolant is delivered to the cylinder by means of the water pump. - the flaps adjust the air flow passing through the radiator. - it consists of oval section tubes. - the water is pumped under the action of the reactive force of the impeller. - the engine is cooled by water or special liquid – antifreeze.

3. Using the table above explain the types of the following details:

4. Make sentences saying where the details are located and what there function is.

 

The water pump   in front of the cylinder block - to close the filler- neck and to maintain the required
The radiator is/are attached on the front end face of the cylinder block pressure in the cooling system.
  The radiator shutters     is/are to the frame of the vehicle on rubber gaskets in front of the engine - to drain the coolant from the system.
The fan installed in the lower tank of the radiator - to regulate the air flow passing through the radiator.
  is/are mounted in the upper tank of the - to reduce the temperature of the cooling liquid.
The thermostat   between the upper and lower branch pipes of the  
Water jackets is/are located cooling system around the cylinders - to drive the fun and the water pump.
      - to pull (тянуть) through
Filler neck cap is/are   radiator when the engine is
  secured   moving slowly.
Drain cock     - to cool them down.
      - to ensure circulation of
V-belt     water under pressure.
       
       

 




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