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КАТЕГОРИИ:






Обучение письму и письменной речи 1 страница




Формирование, развитие и совершенствование умений чтения

Одна из основных задач настоящего пособия – подготовить студентов к самостоятельному чтению незнакомых аутентичных текстов в соответствии с профессиональными целями деятельности.

Работа с текстом: чтение вслух; восприятие английской речи на слух; выполнение заданий с опорой на разнообразные иллюстрации; пересказ текста; его использование в устном монологическом высказывании, диалоге, письменном сообщении.

 

Обучение лексике

Введение слов, словосочетаний и специальных терминов осуществляется либо путем демонстрации обозначаемых предметов на рисунках, либо многократным называнием слова изолированно и в контекстуально связанном словосочетании или предложении:

- с использованием контекста (если он подсказывает необходимое значение)

- способом соотнесения лексики поурочного и иллюстрированного словарей; слова приводятся в виде списка с соответствующими рисунку номерами слов; список слов под рисунком служит ключом

- способом толкования (дифиниции)

- через языковую догадку

- методом исключения

- на основе уже известных лексических единиц

 

Обучение говорению

При обучении говорению особое внимание следует уделять проблемам терпимого отношения к ошибкам и способам их исправления. При оценке ошибок следует учитывать причины их появления, степень отклонения от нормы, частоту их повторения, этап овладения английским языком. Ошибка должна быть объектом жесткого контроля и исправления в тренировочных упражнениях, а так же других подготовительных видах работы. В спонтанной. Неподготовленной, свободной речи отношение к ошибке должно быть терпимым в зависимости от того насколько она препятствует общению. Если ошибка терпима, то для ее исправления не следует «разрывать» речь и нарушать общение. Устранение ошибок должно осуществляться во время отдельной коррективной работы.

В обучении диалогической речи используются такие методические приемы, как

- общение в рамках определенного контекста

- составление реплик по опорным словам. Словосочетаниям, специальным терминам, фрагментам или предложениям из текста, ключевым словам и выражениям.

Обучение монологической речи осуществляется в ходе пересказов, основанных на вопросах к тексту.

 

Обучение письму и письменной речи

Цель обучения письму и письменной речи состоит в обучении целенаправленной и осмысленной коммуникативной деятельности в письменной форме. Письмо и письменная речь рассматривается как процесс, в течении которого студенты тренируются в размышлении, планировании, изложении мыслей, выбирают и анализируют различные варианты такого изложения, редактируют и исправляют собственный текст.

 

 

LESSON 1.

1. Phonetic drill.

Lorry, long, motor, coach, small, call, auto, automobile, are, car, large, half, truck, bus, number, ton, passenger, carry, tractor.

2. Reading drill:

Synonym, term, automobile, motor, auto, group, class, passenger, material, district, commercial, general, specialized, to classify, to transport, to construct, to accommodate

3. Read the words for the text and memorize them


to be used – использоваться to be known – быть известным

to classify – классифицировать in accordance – в соответствии

to transport – транспортировать to accommodate – приспосабливать

to carry – перевозить freight – груз

distance – дистанция, расстояние to vary – варьироваться, различаться

capacity – способность delivery –доставка

vehicle - аппарат

4. Read the text and translate it.

AUTOMOBILES

The word “automobile” has several synonyms: motor, motor car, auto car, car and motor vehicle. In America the terms automobile, auto and car are most commonly used. In England motor and motor car are more often used.

In America the commercial vehicle is called a “truck”, while in England it is known as “lorry”.

Motor vehicles are classified into the groups in accordance with their general use. These classes are: the passenger car; the bus or coach; the commercial vehicle and the cars for specialized use.

Passenger cars are designed and used for transporting persons and are constructed to accommodate up to seven people. Busses are designed to carry large numbers of passengers up to 48. Commercial vehicles or trucks as they are commonly called, are used for the transportation of materials or freight, either over short or long distances. They very in size and capacity from the small half-ton delivery truck to large tractor – trailer units.

 

5. Make sentences using the text.

Passenger cars are used for ………………………

Buses ………………………

Commercial vehicles are designed to ……………………….

 

6. Answer the questions.

1. What terns are used for the word “automobile” in America? In England?

2. How is the commercial vehicle called in the USA? In England?

3. What are the passenger cars used for?

4. What are the buses used for?

5. What are the tricks used for?

 

7. Read the text and summarize it.

HOW MANY VEHICLES ARE THERE IN THE WORLD?

There are now nearly 500 million vehicles in the world counting all the cars, lorries and buses. The USA claims the first place, Japan is second and West Germany - the third, the UK is sixth.

On average about 80% of the world’s vehicles are cars. In Russia, however, only about half its vehicles are cars and in China only one third.

The number of vehicles is catching up with the population in some countries. In the USA there is one vehicle for every 1,4 people. In the UK there is one vehicle for very 2,9. But China’s one million people outnumber their vehicle by 340 to 1. In India there are 308 people per vehicle.

 

8. Ask 5 questions to the text.

9. Use your questions as a plan and retell the text.

LESSON 2

1. Study the words and expressions:

To put into mass production – запустить в массовое производство


Production - производство

To imagine - представлять

Modern - современный

High efficiency – высокая эффективность

Long service life – долгий срок службы

Driving safety – безопасность езды

Ease of maintenance – легкость содержания

Appearance – внешний вид

To design - конструировать

Requirement - требование

To offer - предлагать

To deal with – иметь дело с …

To subject to tests – подвергать испытаниям

Rigid - жесткий

Quality - качество

Smooth - acting clutch – плавное сцепление

Silent gearbox – бесшумная коробка передач

Dependable brakes – надежные тормоза


2. Read the text and translate it.

Automobile production.

The production of the automobiles is a highly developed field of industry in many countries. Today people can not imagine their life without cars, trucks, buses and so on. So, the modern automobile must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, ease of maintenance and , of course , pleasant appearance. Besides these up-to-date requirements the automobile should be properly designed before it is put into mass production. And of course specialists in automobile industry who deal with designing and manufacturing cars should know that the production of the automobile consists of the following phases:

1) designing;

2) working out the technology of manufacturing processes;

3) laboratory tests;

4) road tests;

5) mass production.

In order to obtain all these requirements and qualities engineers should develop up-to-date methods of designing cars. Also it is important to know computer science because it is intended to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing. Computers offer quick and optimal solutions of problems.

Before putting the automobile into mass production all its units and mechanisms are subjected to tests, first in the plant's laboratory and then the car undergoes a rigid quality control in road tests. Only after this the car is put into mass production. So, why are these tests required? What qualities are required of the car? The modern automobile must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch, silent gearbox, dependable brakes, steering system and of course it must be very comfortable and have all conveniences.

So the production of the automobiles is a long and difficult process which requires the

development of new technologies.

3. Answer the questions:


1) What requirements must the modern automobile meet?

2) What phases does the production of the automobile consist of?

3) Why is it important for the specialists in automobile industry to know computer science?

4) Why are cars subjected to road test?

5) What qualities are required of the automobile today?

4. Complete the sentences:

1) The cars are subjected to road tests in order ...

2)Also it is important to know computer science ...

3) The car must have the following units ...

4) The car must have the following qualities ...

a) to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing.

b) to meet up-to-date requirements

c) high efficiency, long service life, driving safety.

d) smooth acting clutch, silent gearbox, dependable brakes.

 

5. Find the equivalents:

1) to deal with a) специалист
2) designing cars b) подвергать испытаниям
3) to put into mass production c) автомобиль
4) long service life d) безопасность езды
5) driving safety e) механизм
6) smooth acting clutch f) иметь дело
7) silent gearbox g) плавное сцепление
8) to subject to tests h) удобный
9) comfortable i) бесшумная коробка передач
10) automobile j) долгий срок службы
11) specialist k) конструирование автомобилей
12) mechanism 1) запустить в массовое производство  

6. Translate the following international words:

mechanism, specialist, process, laboratory, test, automobile, engineer, comfortable.

 

7. Translate the following sentences into English:

- Сегодня люди не могут представить свою жизнь без машин, грузовиков, автобусов.

- Только после этого автомобиль запускается в массовое производство.

- Современный автомобиль должен обладать высокой эффективностью, долгим сроком службы, безопасностью вождения, легкостью содержания и приятным внешним видом.

9. Fill in the blanks with the words below:

1) Besides these up-to-date ... the automobile should be properly designed before it is put into ... production.

2) In order ... all these requirements and qualities engineers should develop up-to-date methods of... cars.

3) Computers offer quick and optimal... of problems.

4) The modern automobile must be rapid in ... , must have smooth acting clutch, silent... , dependable brakes, steering system and of course it must be very ... and have all conveniences.

gearbox, comfortable, to obtain, designing, acceleration, solutions, mass, requirements.

 

 

LESSON 3.

1. Phonetic drill:

Firm, company, diesel, industry, model, problem, start, concrete, tank, crane, mixer

2. Make word combinations with the word capacity and translate them:

tank

lifting

loading capacity

high

low

different

3. Read and memorize the following words:


founded – основанный outskirts – окраина

to produce – производить to market – торговать

requirement – требование, потребность industry – индустрия, промышленность

achievement –достижение during – в течение

respected – респектабельный firm – фирма

quality – качество durability – прочность, долговечность

reliability – надежность effort – усилие

to concentrate – концентрировать, сосредотачивать

to solve – решать, разрешать (проблему) environment – окружающая среда

pollution – загрязнение variety – разнообразие

multitude – множество purpose – цель

range – диапазон, ряд engine – двигатель

 

4. Make several word combinations with the words from task 3.

5. Read the text and translate it. Answer the questions after the text.

NISSAN DIESEL

Nissan Diesel Industries Ltd. Founded on the outskirts of Tokyo got its start in 1935 producing and marketing diesel engines to meet its growing requirements of industry. Since then a lot of vehicles and engines have come off the production line. Great achievement have been made in the transportation industry during all these years. The name of the highly-respected firm has become synonyms with quality, durability and reliability.

They concentrated their efforts on solving the problems of environmental pollution. Nissan Diesel makes a variety of vehicles for a multitude of purposes: cargo trucks, dump trucks, truck tractors, crane carriers, tank trucks, concrete mixed trucks and buses in a range of size from medium trucks to heavy-duty models.

1. When was Nissan Diesel Industries founded?

2. How many vehicles have come off the production line since 1935?

3. What has become the name of this firm synonymous with?

4. What have they concentrated their efforts on?

5. What vehicles does this firm produce?

 

LESSON 4.

1. Study the words:


to injure - повредить

valid – действующий, действительный

to lake into consideration – принимать во внимание

abreast – в ряд

forbidden or to forbid – запрещать, не позволять

lane – проход, переулок

motorvan – автофургон, багажный вагон

cyclist - велосипедист

to cause – причинять, вызывать, являться причиной

carelessness – небрежность, невнимательность

rule - правило

to obey – слушаться, повиноваться

sure - уверенный

braking - торможение

sign - знак

provided – при условии, что …

hydraulic - гидравлический

wheel - колесо

braking path – тормозной путь

to depend on – зависеть от

condition – состояние, обстоятельства. условия

surface - поверхность

wet - мокрый

smoothly – гладко, ровно, плавно, спокойно

clutch – сцепление, хватка, сжатие

to engage – нанимать, зацеплять, включать

parking brake = hand brakes – ручной тормоз

to hold, held, held – держать, вмещать,

владеть, иметь

steep – крутой, невероятный

grade – градус, степ


 

2. Read the texts and translate them.

Text 1. ROAD TRANSPORT. TRAFFICRULES

Every year several thousand people are killed on the roads, hers are injured. Traffic regulations are international nowadays. But spe­cial regulations valid for one country only are also to be tak­en into consideration.

Traffic in Russia is on the right-hand side of streets and roads with traffic way wide enough for several cars moving abreast in one direction. It is forbidden to drive in the left-hand lane if the right-hand lane is free. In Great Britain traffic keeps to the left. Motorcars, motorvans, buses and cyclists must all keep to the left side of the road. In most other countries traffic keeps to the. right.

Accidents are often caused by carelessness.

There are rules that help to make the roads safe, but peo­ple do not always obey the rules. They are careless. If every­body obeys the rules, the road will be much safer.

Before crossing the road, stop and look both ways. Look right, look left, look right again. Then, if you are sure that the road is clear, that there is nothing coming, it is safe to cross the road.

 

Text 2.Braking of the Car and Road Signs.

To brake a moving car it is necessary, to use only foot brakes provided with a hydraulic drive for all four wheels. The braking path depends on the car speed and condition of the road surface.

On the wet road and at high speeds the car should be braked in time and smoothly, with the clutch engaged. The parking brake (hand brake) serves to hold the car in place. It should beused when thecar is stopped bymeans of a foot brake on a level road oron a steep grade. Don't forget that the park­ing brakeactsas thefoot brake.

Moreover, when it is used on a moving car side-slipping might occur, especially on a wet road as the parking brake does hot act directly on the wheels.

3. Ask questions to the texts.

4. Use the questions as a plan and retell one of the texts.


 

 

LESSON 5.

1. Phonetic drill:

Support, start, load, drive, speed, respect, haul, range, handle.

2. Make word combinations with the word “trucks”, translate them:

cargo

dump

concrete mixer

logging

fire engine trucks

tank

heavy-duty

high-speed

long-distance

3. Read the words and learn them by heart:

Maneuverable, hauling, ruggedly, roughest terrain, solid, sturdy, distribution, pump, liquid, logging , tough job, equipped, extinguishers

4. Read and translate the definitions below. Learn them by heart.

Cargo trucks – are maneuverable trucks for quick and economical cargo hauling.

Dump trucks - ruggedly built to handle the heaviest loads on the roughest terrain for high productivity.

Truck tractor – reliable truck tractors for high-speed, long-distance, mass transportation over highways and superhighways.

Crane carriers – providing solid, sturdy support and even load distribution for cranes with large lifting capacities.

Concrete Mixer trucks – are available with loading capacities ranging from 1.6m to 5.0m. Drum is driven by a hydraulic pump.

Tank lorries – ensure safe transportation of high-capacity liquid loads.

Logging trucks – are built for the tough job of hauling heavy logs from forest over rough terrain or highways.

Fire engine trucks – are fast and easy to handle, equipped with chemical fire extinguishers.

5. Find the Russian equivalents to the English words:


passenger car машина-кран dump truck бетономешалка

logging truck легковой автомобиль concrete mixer лесовоз

tank carrier автоцистерна crane carrier самосвал

truck tractor скорая помощь ambulance тягач


highway бездорожье rough terrain шоссе

concrete road асфальтовая дорога

off-road дорога с бетонным покрытием


6. Translate the following sentences:

- «Ниссан-Дизель» была основана в 1935 году.

- Множество автомобилей выпускаются этой компанией.

- Завод выпускает грузовики. Самосвалы, бетономешалки, лесовозы, автоцистерны и другие машины.

- Проблемы загрязнения окружающей среды решаются в фирме «Нисан-Дизель».

- Автомобили этой компании характеризуются высоким качеством, выносливостью и надежностью.

 

LESSON 6.

1. Phonetic drill:

[o] – cross, obstacle, storage [o:] – horn, source, law [oa] – tow, load

[ ] – truck, under, function [a:] – hard, plant, cargo [ai] – size, final, wiper, type

 

2. Read and translate the words, pay attention to the suffixes: -er, -or, -tion, sion

to operate – operator – operation to move – mover – motion

to consume – consumer – consummation to transmit – transmitter – transmission

to direct – director – direction to indicate – indicator indication

to generate – generator – generation

 

3. Remember the words:

cargo = load – груз tow – буксировать

additional – дополнительный torque – крутящий момент

change – изменять mix – смешивать

size – размер, величина cardan driver – карданная передача

final driver – главная передачаshaft – вал

frame – рама wheel mover – колесный двигатель

suspension – подвеска connection – связь, соединение

as well as – так же, как allow – позволять, разрешать

poor roads – плохие дороги overcome – преодолевать

steering – рулевое управление indicating device – контрольные приборы

fuel-air mixer – горючая смесь spark – искра

power source – источник энергии consumer – потребитель

horn – звуковой сигнал, гудок single wire type – однопроходный тип

heater – обогреватель windshield wipers – стеклоочистители

winch - лебедка chassis – шасси

clutch – сцепление gearbox – коробка передач

axle – ось absorber – поглотитель

towing gear – буксировочное устройство

hard-surface road – дорога с твердым покрытием

cobblestone road – дорога с булыжным покрытием

under any condition – в любых условиях

set in motion – приводить в движение

truck controls – механизмы управления

4. Read the text. Find the sentences with underlined words from task 3 and translate them.

TRUCK DISCRIPTION

ZIL-131 truck is a six-wheel cross-country cargo vehicle. It is designed for carrying loads on mixed- and hard-surface roads (except cobblestone ones). The truck may be also used for towing trailer and carrying personal. It can operate under and condition, including tropical ones.

The truck consists of five main parts: engine, chassis, body, electrical equipment, additional equipment. The engine is the power plant of the vehicle. It sets the truck in motion.

The chassis includes power transmission, running gear and truck controls.

The transmission transmits the torque from the engine to the driving wheels and changes the torque in size and direction. It contains clutch, gearbox, cardan drive, final drive, differential transfer case, and driving wheel shafts.

The running gear of the truck includes frame, axles, wheel mover, suspension. All the truck mechanisms are mounted on the frame. The wheels as well as axles are divided into driving and driven. The suspension including springs and absorbers ensures elastic connection between the frame and axles.

The running gear of modern trucks allows them to move with a high speed along poor and snow roads, to overcome water obstacles and trenches.

Truck controls include steering and brakes. Their function is to control a truck.

The body of the truck is located on the frame and includes driver’s cabin and platform.

The electrical equipment serves for sparking the engine, for feeding indicating devices, for lighting and signaling. The truck electrical equipment consists of electrical power sources, consumers. The power sources are storage battery and generator. The consumers are starter, horn, lighting system. Functioning of the electrical equipment in the truck is controlled by means of instruments mounted on the instrument panel. The electrical equipment is of the signal wire type.

The additional equipment includes winch, cab heater, windshield wipers, and towing gear.

5. Translate the whole text.

6. Answer the questions.


What is ZIL-131 designed for?

What is it used for?

What parts does it consist of?

What is the function of the engine?

What does the chassis include?

What is the function of the transmission?

What does it contain?

What does the running gear include?

What do truck controls include?

What does the electrical equipment serve for?

What does the additional equipment include?


7. Be ready to speak about: engine, chassis, body, electrical equipment, additional equipment.

 

LESSON 6.

1. Phonetic drill:

Type, panel, to start, cabin, to indicate, platform. To signal, battery, to function, instrument, to control, mixture, function.

2. Make word combinations and translate them:

cargo four-wheel drive

commercial six-wheel

military eight-wheel

cross-country } vehicle all-wheel

all-terrain four-axles

off-road 4 by 4 } truck

right-hand general purpose

left-hand special-purpose

multi-role

middle-weight

medium-duty

heavy-duty

high-mobility

medium-mobility

3. Match the two columns:

Vehicle a road car designed to be drawn along by a motor vehicle.

Truck base frame of a motor car.

Trailer a machine for generating power.

Body IS a means of transport provided with wheels and used for carrying people

and weights.

Chassis a wheeled vehicle for carrying heavy weights.

Engine the hull of a vehicle ship.

 

4. Divide the words below into 3 columns:

transmission running gear truck controls

 

frame, brakes, axles, clutch, suspension, steering, gearbox, wheel mover, wheel shafts, cardan drive, engine, final drive, differential.

 

5. Listen to the text “American Cars”. Try to remember as many details as possible.

Let's take a ride in one of our cars. Do you like mu­sic? Some of our cars have stereo radios with cassette and CD players in them. Some big cars even have televi­sions and video machines! Many people have telephones in their cars too! Have you ever called home from your car?

In our cars we have windows that roll up or down by touching a button. And you can lock and unlock the doors by pushing a different button.

Almost every car has a heater and an air conditioner to keep us warm in the winter and cool in the summer.

We love our cars and we spend a lot of time in them. Some cars will tell you the outside temperature and what direction you are travelling (north, south, east or west). I'veeven seen cars that talk to you! Can you imagine a car telling you to put your seatbelt on? Most Americans always wear a seatbelt.

 

6. Look at the picture and identify the parts of the car.

7. Read the definitions and say what it is.


1. You use these when you want to go left or right.

2. You use it to stop.

3. You use it to lessen the effect of collision.

4. You can put luggage in here.

5. You turn this to steer the car.

6. You use this to warn other drivers.

7. You put gas in it.

8. This covers the engine.

9. You turn these on at night.


10. This is the band of rubber on the rim (обод) of the wheel.

 

LESSON 7.

1. Phonetic drill:

Cargo, cabin, cab, heater, horn, platform, body, winch, battery, truck, chassis, trailer, system, equipment, power, case, running gear, transfer case, vehicle

 

2. Divide the words below into four groups:

power sources consumers body additional equipment

storage battery, winch, horn, ignition system, cargo platform, generator, cab heater, cabin, starter, towing gear, lighting system, windshield wipers, indicating devices, spare wheel holder

 

3. What are these components used for? Make sentences according to the model.

Model: Starter server for …

a. electrical equipment

1. starter a. sparking the fuel-air mixture

2. horn b. inner lighting and distance lighting

3. lighting system c. accumulating the energy

4. generator d. signaling

5. spark plug e. showing the truck speed, the temperature of the cooling liquid

6. storage battery f. charging the storage battery

7. indicating g. starting the engine

b. additional equipment

1. spare wheel holder 1. …………………………..

2. cab heater 2. …………………………..

3. towing gear 3. …………………………..

4. windshield wipers 4. …………………………..

 

4. Mach the pictures with the words below. Make sentences according to the example.

ex: Number 1 is a … . It is used for …

 

 




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