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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

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Ценовые и неценовые факторы

Характеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы


Обучение письму и письменной речи 5 страница


  1. Phonetic drill. The details of the systems;

Lubricating system Fuel feed system Cooling system

oil cooler carburetor water jackets

oil intake fuel tanks fan

oil filter final fuel filter water pump

oil pump air cleaner radiator shutter

oil passages fuel pump thermostat

oil pan fuel filter settle radiator pips drain cocks


2. Paraphrase the sentences.

1. The engine IB the power plant Of the vehicle. It sets the truck in motion.

2. The engine ZIL-13! 1s provided with 3 systems.

They are: lubricating, cool trig and fuel feed systems.

3. The engine systems ensure normal operation of the engine.

4. The cooling system serves for cooling the engine when it becomes hot.

5. The function of the lubricating system is to lubricate the friction metal surface of the engine.

6. The fuel system is designed for containing fuel, preparing the fuel-air mixture and providing the engine cylinders with it.

7. The ignition system is intended to ensure fuel combustion in the engine cylinders.


3. Read the instruction about changing the oil and put the sentences in chronological order.

1. Allow the oil pan to drain completely.

2. Remove the filler cap and refill the engine with oil.

3. Check the on capacity of the engine before changing the oil.

4. Clean the drain plug of the oil pan and then replace it.

5. Place an empty container under the drain plug.


4. Read the text and stand the meaning of underlined words:


Petrol will not burn unless it is mixed with air. Normally the proportion of air to petrol required to burn fuel completely is 15(air) : 1 (petrol). This means that 1 kg of petrol should tie mixed with 15 kg of air. More air or less patrol gives a weak mixture, i.e. an air to petrol ratio greater than 15:1. Less air or more petrol gives a rich mixture, i.s. an air to petrol ratio of less than 15:1.

A weak mixture, which means very slow combustion, will result in high fuelconsumption, low engine power and possibly overheating of the engine.

A rich mixture, which also means slow combustion will similarly result in high fuel consumption and low engine power. A further indication of a rich mixture is flack exhaust gas.

completely – полностью to mean – значить, означать


5. Fill in the table:

Mixture strength Combustion Effects  
Vary week. e.g. Very rich, e.g.    


6. Using the table fill in the blanks:

High fuel consumption and low engine power can be caused by either , ... or ... . If the exhaust gas la black, this indicates ... . If the engine overheats, this probably means the mixture is too ....



7. Study the words and read the text.

Word list:

unless – если не

dust - пыль

to decrease - уменьшать

to increase - увеличивать

amount - количество

to cause – вызывать

Air Filter

Although it is very simple, the air filter is a very important part of an engine. Filters will become blocked unless they are cleaned. If they become blocked, the engine may be damaged.

Air passes through the air filter before it goes into the carburettor. The filter removes dirt, dust and other impurities from the air. In the carburettor the air is mixed with fuel (usually in the ratio of about 10:1) and this mixture passes to the cylinders. If the air filter becomes blocked, the air flow to the carburettor will be decreased. If the air flow decreased, the amount of fuel in the mixture will increase. The amount of fuel in the mixture may increase by 30% or 40%. Then the engine may not operate efficiently and considerable damage may be caused inside the cylinders.

Never operate an engine if the air filter is not in place. Dust and dirt may enter the engine and damage the cylinders, pistons and piston rings.




1. Read and learn the words:

Word list

to ride - ехать

to glance – мелькать, сверкать

route - маршрут

destination – место назначения

sequence – последовательность, порядок следования

smoothly – гладко, ровно

network - сеть

precisely – точно, определенно

range – ряд, линия, пространство

indeed – между прочим

exciting - восхитительный

attempt – попытка, проба

fleet – парк автомашин

venture – рискованное предприятие

implemented – снабженный, выполненный

approximately - приблизительно

relatively – относительно, соответственно

to proceed – продолжать, возобновлять

conventional – условный, общепринятый

terminal - заключительный

to accomplish – исполнять, выполнять, совершенствовать

installation – устройство, установка

switch – выключатель, стрелка

acceptable – приемлемый, допустимый

available – имеющийся, доступный

to contemplate – рассматривать, предполагать

knob – выпуклость, ручка

trunk - магистраль

to relieve – облегчать, ослаблять

feasible – возможный, вероятный

to guide – руководить, направлять

wire - провод

to embed – укреплять, вделывать

coil – катушка, кольцо, веревка

to install – устраивать, устанавливать

tangle - путаница

to stroll – гулять, странствовать

to supply – снабжать, доставлять

merchandise - товары

to erupt – извергаться, прорезываться

entire – полный, современный

to tear down – срывать, сносить

grid – решетка, сетка

to evolve – развертывать, развиваться

core – внутренность, ядро

solution - решение

to derive – происходить, извлекать

squat - приземистый

muffled – запутанный, обмотанный

to throb – биться, пульсировать

to hover – парить, вертеться

cushion – подушка, прокладка

tide - поток

debris – осколки, обломки

hull – шелуха, кожа

to crow - ликовать

to envy - завидовать



The Coming Revolution In Transportation

You ride toward the city at 90 miles an hour, glancing through the morning newspaper while your electrically powered car follows its programmed route on en automated "guideway". You leave your car at the city's edge - a park-like city without streets - and enter a small plastic "people capsule”. Inside, you dial your destination on a sequence of numbered buttons and settle back. Smoothly, silently, your capsule accelerates to 80 miles an hour. Guided by a distant master computer, it slips down into the network of tunnels under the city and takes precisely the fastest route to your destination.

Far-fetched? Not at all. Every element of this fantastic system is already within range of our scientists' skills. Indeed, the system utilizes only a few of the exciting new people-moving machines that have reached or passed the experimental stags.

What are they like? When will they become common-place? To get the answers you have to talk with scientists, engineers, transportation officials and city planners and everywhere you will find sings of a revolution in transportation.

New York Airport Bus. New York is putting into service a whole fleet of vehicles that are half bus and half train in en attempt to cope with impossible traffic jams between midtown and John F.Kennedy Airport on Long Island. The N.Y. rail-bus venture is being implemented by the Kennedy Airport Project. Stated simply the plan calls for by-passing the worst of the N.Y. City traffic by means of on-railing the buses to the tracks on the Long Island Rail-road where they will travel by rail for approximately eight miles. Then in a relatively free from traffic area the buses will be off-railed and proceed the balance of the distance as a conventional bus finally off-loading passengers at various air-line terminals. The vehicle used in the N.Y. project is a standard 41-passenger airport bus converted for, rail highway usage. The conversion is accomplished by installation of four hydraulic cylinders and eight rail wheels together with the necessary controls for rapid conversion, from highway to rail or vice versa. The actual switch from rail to highway can be accomplished in as little as 20 seconds and it's all done simply by raising or lowering the rail wheels with hydraulic system. Once the vehicle is on the rails speeds of up to 90 mile*, per hour are acceptable providing good rails are available. In the case of the N.Y. operation a 40 to 45 miles per hour speed limit is contemplated. An ordinary bus can be converted to a rail bus without any unusual problems. Certain commuter type buses are even more easily converted and it can be done by any competent shop.

Automated Autos. At the General Motors Technical Centre the Unicontrol Car is being developed which is one step along the way to the automated family sedan. In the car, a small knob next to the seat replace steering wheel, gearshift level, accelerator and brake pedal. Moving that knob sends electronic impulses to a “baby computer” in the car trunk. From these signals the computer activates the proper servomechanism - steering motor, power brakes or accelerator.

Although this strange control method is easy to handle, the car does have to be driven. There are several research laboratories which work at the automated highways that would

relieve the driver of all responsibilities except that of choosing a destination.

Automated highways - engineers call them guideways – are technically feasible today. General Motors successfully demonstrated an electronically controlled guidance system. A wire was embedded in the road, and two pick-up coils were installed at the front of a car to sense its position in relation of that wire. The coils sent electrical signals to the steering system, to keep the vehicle automatically on course. They tested a system that also controlled spacing and detected obstacles. It could slow down or stop an over-taking vehicle until the road was clear.

Other companies are also experimenting with guideways. In some systems, the car's power comes from an electric transmission line built into the road. In others, vehicles would be carried on a high speed conveyer, or perhaps container.

Computer-controlled highways will almost surely a reality, for when the human element is removed, vehicles can travel with greater safety at faster speeds, close together. In fact, most experts believe that each lane of automated highway could move the traffic of three or four of today's uncontrolled lanes.

"People Places". And when all this comes true, will we drive into even more nightmarish traffic tangles on city streets? The answer to this was found in Sweden. As you stroll across a fountain-dotted plaza lined with attractive shops, you don't hear any traffic noise hare; this is “a walking plaza", “a people place", and the key to its success is the network of tunnels beneath it. Down there, trucks are supplying the stores with merchandise, and a subway carry people to and from nearby Stockholm.

Underground Highways? Most transportation experts don't consider them extravagant at all. Improved boring methods - laser beams, chemicals, water or flame jets - will make tunnelling cheaper. Moreover, underground highways are not affected by weather, and they do not provoke the bitter debates that have erupted in many cities over the displacement of people by surface construction.

Many of the transportation authorities are enthusiastic about Stockholm's “walking plaza” concept. The idea is to provide for most of the people's needs in a more concentrated area, so that they have less reason to travel outside their own community.

Few people expect entire cities to be torn down and rebuilt just to solve the transportation problem. But a new look might be superimposed. It might work like this: Spread out a map of your city, and with a pencil mark it off into squares, eight city blocks to a side. Those squares are upper-blocks; your grid of pencil lines trace boulevards which serve the blocks alone their perimeters. Barricade most of the streets within each super-block to channel the traffic into logical, efficient routes - and you will be looking at your city as it may appear a decade or so from now.

Planners expect each super-block to evolve into a city thin a city, with new stores clustered at its core. But not put all roads underground and, in that case, why not dig the tunnels to accommodate computer-controlled people capsules instead?

Still, people must travel to their place of work - which is not necessarily near where they live - and this causes an almost universal problem in our cities. Some recent studies point toward solution. For example, a bus line picks passengers practically at their doors (for a monthly charge) and carries them, directly to their place of work. In the future, such personalized computer services may be provided by mini-buses. One proposal calls for special metal plates connected to a central computer. Installed throughout a neighbourhood. When someone pushes a plate, it signals the computer which orders the nearest mini-bus to pick him up.

Skimming the Waves. The Aerotrain, of course, derives from that older vehicle, the hovercraft, which is bringing the transportation revolution down to the seas. If you take a look at England's SR.N4 resting peacefully on a wide concrete ramp at the Dover edge of the English Channel, you will see that this squat 130-foot hovercraft is feminine, for she is wearing what appears to be a skirt.

You walk inside and take a seat. The door clangs shut, muffled gas-turbine engines begin to throb, and the lady comes to life. Air pressure from four great fans balloon her limp skirt into a rounded fullness. Carrying 264 passengers and 30 automobiles, the SB.N4 slowly glides down the ramp, hovers over the water for a moment - and then races toward France at a mile a minute. Supported on a cushion of air, she crosses land and water with equal ease. Tides, debris and ice bother her not at all, for the skirt lifts her hull seven fast above the surface.

Several types of ships have also joined the waterborne revolution. Highly automated supertankers more than a thousand feet long are sailing with craws of fewer than 30 man. And imaginative marine experts are attacking some of cargo ships other traditional problems. Is it really necessary, they ask, far a freighter to waste valuable time going into port at all? They envision nuclear-powered cargo ships that would remain at sea for years at a time. Cargo supplies and crew would be transferred by slant helicopters as the ships sail up and down the coast.


2. Answer the questions:

1. What will the city of the future look like?

2. Can you explain what an automated "guideway" mean?

3. What is a 'people capsule'? Is it fantasy?

4. How are traffic jams between midtown and John F.Kenedy Airport supposed to be coped with?

5. By means of what can a standard 41-passenger bus be converted for rail highway usage?

6. How long will it take to switch the bus from rail to highway and how can it b« accomplished?

7. What is a small computer in the automated auto's used for and where is it placed?

8. How does the guidance system demonstrated by General Motors work?

9. What are the advantages of automated highway lanes as compared with uncontrolled lanes?

10. How did the specialists in Sweden solve the transportation problem in the busy centre of the city?

11. What are the advantages of the underground highways as compared with the surface highways?

12. What services may be provided by mini-buses in the future City!

13. What are the characteristic features of the hovercraft SR.N4 that carries passengers across the English channel?

14. What are the daring dreams of the marine experts concerning cargo ships?


3. Give a short summary of the text according to the following plan. Translate the plan into English.

  1. Колесно-рельсовый транспорт (характерные особенности и преимущества);

2. Шоссейно-транспортная система, контролируемая с помощью ЭВМ;

3. Подземные шоссе;

4. Транспортная революция на море.


4. Put the sentences in chronological order according to the text.

1. In the case of the N.V. operation a 40 to hour speed limit is contemplated.

8. Every element of this fantastic system is already within range of our scientists' skills.

3. Smoothly, silently your capsule accelerates to 80 an hour.

4. In other, vehicles world be carried on a high speed conveyer, or perhaps in a container.

5. They tested a system that also controlled spacing and detected obstacles.

6. Moving that knob sends electronic impulses to a “baby computer” in the car's trunk..


5. Complete the sentences.

1. New York is putting into serves a whole fleet of vehicles that ...

2. The vehicle used in the N.V, project is ...;

3. The actual switch from rail to highway can be …;

4. There are several research laboratories which ...

5. Automated highways are …

6. Computer-controlled highways will become …

7. The "walking player concept" is the idea that provides …

8. A new look to solve the transportation problem is …

9. Planners expect …

10. People must travel to their place of work and this cause ...




  1. Study the words:

tremendous – ужасный, потрясающий

curious – любознательный, удивительный

improve – усовершенствоваться, повышать в цене

to surpass – превышать, перегонять

decade – десятилетие, десяток

reduce – уменьшать, сокращать

exhaust – выхлоп, вытягивать

fume – дым, пары

research – исследование, изучение

substitute – замена, заменитель

essentially – по существу

cancel - отменять, сокращать

excessive - чрезмерный, излишний

trigger – тормозить, останавливать

average – средний, обычный

municipal - самоуправляющий

oblivion - забвение

couple – соединять, связывать

capacity – способность, мощность

expand – тратить, расходовать

relative – относительный, связанный

despite – несмотря на

estimate – ценить, оценивать

charge – заряжать, загружать

Electromobile – to be or not to be.

There are now more than 100 million automobiles on the roads of the world, and the number is going to surpass 200 million within a decade (the largest increase expected in the USSR). The tremendous number of cars makes air pollution, especially in the big cities, a real problem. This is one of the reasons why people are talking about eliminating the internal combustion engine altogether as soon as possible or at least reducing exhaust fumes.

So far, years of research have come up with littler - searches for new types of engines and new fuels have not produced any basic solutions. True, using a gas fuel (propane-butane) instead of gasoline does cut the carbon dioxide content in the exhaust fumes from 10 to 25 per cent of what it was, as well as the percentage of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, but the idea has not really caught on yet, although the Soviet Union has tens of thousands of cars that run on a gas fuel.

Born Last Century. As a substitute, the electromobile an essentially new type of a vehicle with an electric engine has drawn the attention of engineers. A very curious thing is that the progress of automobile transport in general was triggered by the electromobile, since the few steam-engined vehicles of the time were far too heavy and cumbersome. Beginning with the 1580s, following some real steps forward in electrical engineering and electrochemistry, quite a few vehicles with an electric engine ranging 3 - 3.5 hp, with an average speed of 10 – 15 kmph and an operational time of six hours were developed in several countries.

A rather good design was produced in Russia in 1899 by I.Romanov, an electrical mechanic who exhibited his electromobile in Petersburg. This 720 kg electrically driven

vehicle could reach a speed of 35 kmph and had a range of about 60 km. Heavy duty electrical buses for municipal transport were developed in Paris, London and elsewhere.

The development of a light-weight internal combustion engine sent the idea of the electromobile almost into oblivion, where it stayed for almost 80 years. But now the idea has made a big comeback - electric transport vehicles are becoming increasingly popular alongside the electrically driven loaders and lifters that ere widely used in industry.

The electromobile has a lot of advantages - non-toxic, non-explosive, practically noiseless and easy to control. The electromobiles that are around now have disadvantages, that actually cancel out the good points.

Power Sources. The basic hitch with today's electromobile is its limited range and excessive weight, coupled with the short life and high cost of the power source. The problem lies with the lead-acid accumulator now being produced and used, so researchers and designers are concentrating on improving the kind of electric cells we have, and on more effective power sources.

The big job is to increase power capacity per unit of mass. In a lead-acid accumulator this figure is approximately 22 watt/hour per kg of mass, with top models being perhaps 33 watt/hour per kg of mass. The power capacity of gasoline will reach about 1000 watt/hour per kg of mass. So the conventional car with a 40 - 60 kg fuel tank can cover 400 - 600 km at a speed of 80 – 100 kmph, while an electromobile with a 15 kW engine (20 hp) and a battery of lead accumulators weighing 300 - 400 kg can cover (without recharging) 60 - 80 km at a speed of 40 – 60 km per hour. The electromobile would need a battery of 1200 - 1500 kg for a 400 km run, and that, needless to say would be absolutely unpracticable, since all its power would be expended just to move its own weight.

There are designs that will help overcome the problem of the tine lost in recharging the accumulators, things like replacing the used-out battery in 10 – 15 min.

Another drawback of lead accumulators is that they are quite expensive; one other drawback is that they have a short life relative to the number of rechargings. So it ends up that the cost of the accumulator in many of the electromobiles we now have is approximately half the cost of the entire vehicle, and its service life is 300 - 500 rechargings, equivalent to just 12 - 18 months of normal operation.

All kinds of other accumulator cells have bean developed, with the best, in the weight sense at least, being the sodium sulphur battery, whose power capacity is five times greater than that of a load battery. The problem is that its service life is one-tenth as long.

Despite the difficulties, there is more and more research being done on the electromobile.

The forecast that the first electromobiles would be one or two passenger vehicles turned out to be wrong because of the inadequate battery power capacity. It is estimated by some that there are approximately 100000 – 110000 electromobiles now being used around the world: most are vans, although light passenger electromobiles have been recently exhibited in several countries.

One way to get around the problem of the battery power inadequacy is the hybrid vehicle - a small internal combustion engine coupled with an accumulator power source. The internal combustion engine is used only outside residential areas to recharge the battery or as a simultaneous source of power. The range of this kind of vehicle is a lot greater. A Soviet model with a combined power plant used on the RAF van gets 80 km per hour and can cover up to 300 km without recharging.

But being realistic, it seems that the electromobile will gradually become the dominant mode of municipal transport (both passenger and goods) alongside conventions units transit systems based on the tram, the trolleybus and the underground. But it is still a long way to go, and a lot of research and development will be needed before this actually happens.

2. Answer the questions:

1. What problems arise with the increase of cars?

2. What kind of the electromobile was produced in Russia in 1899?

3. What kind of electromobiles are being used now?

4. What are the main problems of using the electromobiles?

5. What is the drawback of lead accumulators?

6. What are the main advantages of the electromobiles?


3. Describe the history of the electromobile creation and its basic technical characteristics.


4. Put the following sentences in chronological order according to the text:

1. A very curious thing is that the progress of automobile transport in general was triggered by the electromobile, the few steam-engined vehicles of the time were far too heavy and cumbersome.

2. The problem is that its service life is one-tenth as long.

3. The tremendous number of cars makes air pollution, especially in the big cities, a real problem.

4. The big job is to increase power capacity per unit of mass.

5. The internal combustion engine is used only outside residential areas to recharge the battery or as a simultaneous source of power.

7. Despite the difficulties, there is more and more research being done on the electromobile.


5. Complete the sentences:

1. As a substitute, the electromobile as essentially new type of vehicle … .

2. A rather good design was produced in Russia ....

3. The development of a light-weight internal combustion engine .....

4. The electromobile has a lot of advantages ......

5. Another drawback of lead accumulators is .....

6. But it is a still a long way to go …




1. Study the word list:

improvement – улучшение, усовершенствование

efficient – эффектный, квалифицированный

occasion – возможность, причина, повод

expert – специалист, опытный

respect - уважать

authority – власть, авторитет

predict - предсказывать

considerably – значительный, важный

errand - поручение

disappear - исчезать

vacation - освобождение

reduction – уменьшение, превращение

achieve – достигать, совершать

equip – оснащать, снабжать

emission – излучение, выпуск

gallon - галлон

squirt- струя, забрызгивать

contend – бороться, утверждать


The Car of The Future: Smaller, Lighter, More Costly.

Most experts agree, that, while there will be no massive shift to buses and subways in the next generation, the typical car of the future will differ in many respects from the one most people drive today.

Automotive engineers and other authorities predict that cars will become smaller, lighter and considerably more expensive. Most will have front-wheel drive and more will

burn diesel oil or more exotic fuel.

More two-passenger urban cars, some of them powered electricity, will be used for commuting to work and everyday errands, but the six-passenger family will not disappear completely.

Big cars will be too expensive to operate for everyday use. So instead of buying a big car and using it only a few week a year, people may prefer to rent or lease one for special occasions, such as summer vacations.

Greater use of plastics, aluminum and light-weight steel alloys is expected. Further weight reductions could be achieved if the cost of light, super-strong graphite-fiber materials can be brought down to levels economical enough to allow their use.

Additional improvements in fuel efficiency will be achieved through streamlined contours that reduce wind resistance, tires that roll more easily and automatic transmissions that are more efficient then those of cars today.

The four-cylinder internal-combustion gasoline engine will become standard on most cars, but many family-sized cars will be equipped with diesel engines.

Engines will be controlled by solid-state electronic components than will constantly monitor exhaust emissions and milk every drop of efficiency out of each gallon.

Fuel pumps are already giving way to electronically controlled injection systems that squirt gasoline directly into the combustion chambers.

Turbochargers, devices that boost engine power by forcing more air and fuel into the cylinders when needed will be widely used on both gasoline and diesel engines.

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