5 :


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By Transcription or Transliteration and Explication of Their Genuine Nationally Specific Meaning

In many a case the lingual form of a unit of nationally specific lexicon conveyed through transcription or transliteration can not provide a full expression of its lexical meaning. Then an additional explication of its sense becomes necessary. It happens when the unit/ notion of the culturally biased lexicon is introduced in the target language for the first time or when it is not yet known to the broad public of the target language readers/listeners. The explanation may be given either in the translated passage/speech flow, where the culturally biased unit is used or in a footnote r- when a lengthy explication becomes necessary: They took her to the Tower of London. (Jerome K.Jerome) Downing Street is guarded outside by a single policeman. (London Illustrated) As the dawn was just breaking he found himself close to

Covent Garden. (O.Wilde) He said that Wall Street and Threadneedle Street between them could stop the universe. (R.AIdington)

. '- . , -. ³ , - -1 (' ) .

It goes without saying that the transcribed or transliterated forms of Downing Street, Covent Garden or Threadneedle Street can not be sufficient for many foreign readers to obtain a fairly correct idea of what really each of them denotes. Hence, some explication of their specific connotative meaning in footnotes becomes inevitable. Footnotes or lengthy explications should always be used when the culturally biased notions are not yet well-known in the target language. For example, surfing when only transliterated/transcribed as will not express its denotative meaning which it in reality is - the sport of riding waves into shore on a surfboard. Hence, a combined translation must be resorted to: ( ); similarly with snow boarding which denotes .

The kind of explication, naturally, can be acceptable in a dictionary but scarcely acceptable in a broader text. That's why foot notes become helpful here, though a frequent usage of them should be avoided as well, since footnotes may divert the reader's attention from the content of the passage/work in which the specific national notions occur.

1 - - ѳ, .


A combined translation may often be resorted to when a short excerpt or sentence contains some specific notions of the kind: A number of restaurants and caf- eterias in Kyiv specialize in varenyky (dumplings), kulish (a thick meal stew) and other dishes. (News from Ukraine) No. 11 Downing Street is

guarded outside by a single policeman too. (London Illustrated)

, , . N 11 ( )

Anybody in this country can see from the definition above that are not simply dumplings, i.e., small balls of dough which can be cooked in soup or stew but a piece of flat dough wrapped around some salted/sweetish curd with fresh egg boiled and served hot with butter and sour cream. Varenyky can also be dumplings wrapped around mashed potatoes/stewed sauerkaut, etc. And also boiled and served hot with butter or small pieces of fried bacon and onions respectively1. Neither is something like a thick meal stew. Besides, kulish apart from some other features, not reflected in the translation above, is not always and not in all regions of Ukraine prepared thick, it may also be thin (soup-like).

3. By Descriptive Explaining/Explication OnlyFor some reason or other the orthographic form of a considerable number of sense units belonging to the nationally specific lexicon of the source language can not be rendered into the target language. That happens mostly when the transcription/transliteration can not be helpful in expressing the sense of the culturally biased national unit, or when it might bring about an unnecessary ambiguity in the target language narration/text cf.: matron ( ); Pilgrim Fathers - - 볿, 1620 ϳ ;

1 Note: in some American restaurants Ukrainian varenyky are called ravioli (Ital.).

prorogation / ; quartermaster - (and also ) . 쳿.

It goes without saying that such lenthy explications of or as well as may be considered superfluous, as their use in translation would aggravate to some extent the elucidation of their proper meanings.

There is no need to emphasize, however, that such lengthy explanations of specifically national notions are always required in the text of the translation/interpretation. And not are all culturally biased/specific units of national lexicon are so heavily loaded with information so that they have to be explicated in a footnote. Quite often an explanation within the target language text may be sufficient enough too, as in the following examples: 1 thought of Phuong who would ,

be haggling over the price of fish in the third street down on the left before going for her elevenses to the milk-bar. (G.Greene)

No coffins were available, so they wrapped George in a blanket and in the Union Jack. (RAIdington)

The Tommies were numbered, formed fours, right turned and marched away. (Ibid.)

I've got some shepherd's pie for lunch today - that you used to like so much. (A.Cronin)

He's upset because we don't run Jim Crow buses. (B.Gerry)

, . (. ) ϳ , . (. )

, , -/ , .




' ,


³ ,


Everybody saw me and you

being married in the church.

The sand was warm like a clay

stove of a country cottage.

161As can be seen, not all the details constituting the semantic structure of the translated above units of specific national lexicon have been fully conveyed in English and Ukrainian translations. Thus, the clay stove does not sufficiently explicate the proper role of , for any stove predominantly implies its being used for cooking. In reality, however, the clay stove was designed in Ukrainian country cottages (khata) for heating and wanning purposes only. Similarly with the former (historical) specific American racists' contemptuous unit Jim Crow buses, which is not simply because Jim Crow was a contemptuous name for a Negro. When translated into Ukrainian simply as ( ) the collocation would loose its connotative (contemptuous) meaning which is inherent in it. The same uan be said about the Ukrainian culturally biased notion of which is certainly not quite equivalent to the descriptive meaning of embroidered in national colours towel, because it is an indispensable item in every folk rite like birthday, weddings or burials. Besides, is used in Ukraine on any other solemn or ceremonial occasion. That is why its translation in the above sentence is not fully faithful. To convey the complexity of meaning contained by the national lexicon units of the kind, footnotes may be resorted to as well. That is one more proof of the difficulties which the student sometimes has while dealing with some specifically national units of lexicon, which are always culturally biased notions.

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