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By Translation of Componental Parts and Additional Explication of the Units of the Nationally Biased Lexicon

The proper meaning of some specific units of the national lexicon can be faithfully rendered by way of regular translation of all or some of their componental parts and explication of the denotative meaning pertaining to the source language unit. The combined approach in the treatment of this group of specific national lexicon units is called forth by the complexity of meaning inherent in the source language units. It is also due to the inadequacy of componental translation, which does not reveal the essentials that are absolutely indispensable for correct comprehension of the real meaning of the culturally biased lexical units of the source language.

Due to this way of rendering the meanings of this kind of units practically involves two simultaneous performances. The first is a regular translation of the main, if not all, componental parts and the next, which follows it, is a more or less exhaustive explanation of the essence pertained to the specific national element of the source language. The extent of the explanation in the target language is predetermined by the nature of the specific unit of national lexicon, by the purpose of translation, and also by some characteristic possibilities of the text in which the unit is used. When translating at language level (out of context) the explanation may be practically unrestricted: Battle of Britain ( , ϳ 볿 1940-1941.); bull's eye ( ' ); collective membership (, ) , ; ); ginger ale, / ( ); inner Cabinet ( ) '-.

Such and the like explanations can not, naturally, be made in the text of a translation, hence they are given usually in the footnotes:

Well, I can tell you anything , that is in an English bluebook, , Harry. (O.Wilde) . 1 Labour Day was past, but 2 summer still pressed down on (), the city. (M.Wilson) . Frances wanted very little: : salad, toast melba, no wine, , 3, only ice water. (A.Cronin) , .

When the lexical meaning of the unit of specific national lexicon is not so complex, it is usually explained in the target language text. The explanation, of course, is not always as exhaustive as it can be in a footnote:

Keep your fingers crossed for , me! (M.Wilson) () _______ !.

1 - , .

2 - ( ).

3 ' . .

163(I) Knew the Professor before he turned into a wooly West-Ender. (A.Cronin) Though veneered by his thirty years in the Civil Service - he had worked his way from boy clerk to principal - Gill was human underneath. (A.Cronin) I will be in the Ladies Gallery tomorrow night at half past eleven. (O.Wilde) . (. ) ... , . (. )

, -. , . . It was probably for the first time in all his mature boyhood that Levko felt somewhat dull. He recollected the pieces of advice he had once given - and the rural weddings at which he would perform the honorary duty of the missing bridegroom's or bride's father.

A fuller and more detailed explanation of the kind of nationally specific notions as given above is not desirable, since it would considerably extend the text of the translation. That is why the student should be warned not to unnecessarily enlarge the explanation of the culturally biased notions, unless required for their exhaustive and correct comprehension. Laconism, therefore, should be the prevailing principle when dealing with the kind of specific national elements, but not to the detriment of explicitness/lucidity and faithfulness of translation.

5. By Ways of Word-for-Word or Loan Translation

When the componental parts making up the units of the nationally specific lexicon are at the same time the main transparent bearers of their proper sence expressed through their meaning, a faithful translation of such sense units may be achieved either by way of word-for-word translation or by way of loan translation. Each of these ways can be well exemplified in English and Ukrainian.

A.Translated word-for-word are the specific national units of lexicon as first (second, third) reading (, ) ( ); secondary grammar school ( ); wall newspaper; Students' Scientific/Research Society; () student's record book.

. The denotative meaning of many units of the specific national lexicon may be rendered by way of loan translating as well: from English: Salvation Army (USA, Gr. Britain) ; the Order of the Garter/of the Bath ϳ'/; the Order of St. Michael and St. George . .; fan club / (, ); from Ukrainian: the Order of Yaroslav the Wise/Yaroslav the Wise Order; . the Order of St. Olga Princess of Kyivan Rus. The denotative meaning of these and many other English/Ukrainin specific units of national lexicon of the kind will undoubtedly be correctly understood by the target-language speakers. And yet neither of the two ways of translating can often provide an exhaustive expression of all the extralingual details of meaning inherent in most of the units in the source language. Thus, the aim and purpose of issuing our wall newspaper, which was a regular practice in all state institutions of the former USSR as well as in this country today would scarcely be understood by the British or Americans. Neither do most of our people understand the whole complexity of meaningful semes pertained, for example, to the British Order of the Bath. Hence, such culturally biased notions are to be explicated more detailed in the target language. .

A considerable number of specific units of the national lexicon, both in English and in Ukrainian, consist of the component parts with seemingly transparent lexical meaning. But when conveyed verbally or word-for-word, however, they may lose their proper meaning together with their nationally specific nature. That happens, because the real connotative meaning inherent in the seems, bearing the national peculiarity can not be achieved via these methods of translation. For example, the House of Lords when translated as completely perverts the real meaning of the collocation as House here, like in the Upper House (or simply the House when capitalized) always preserves the connotative meaning of . Likewise with the House of Commons where both components are also endowed with a nationally peculiar meaning and can not be translated as but only as .

This method of translating is also widely employed when dealing with former Sovietisms as , , etc. Here too the verbal translating of , like other notions of the kind would completely distort the proper sense of the collocations which they are components of. The variant *Hero of Socialist Work* would also be inadequate stylistically, because the componental part work belongs to the neutral style lexicon. Similarly in case with the former term socialist competition in which the noun component had nothing to do with the meaning or competition proper. Therefore, a faithful translation of the kind of units of lexicon is predetermined by the correct choice of equivalent units for the semes bearing the national peculiarity. The latter may be expressed both verbally/word-for-word and by means of translation loans, which should be resorted to when verbal translating ruins the national peculiarity of the source language culturally biased units. The number of English genuine translation loans in Ukrainian and Ukrainian in English is considerable. So is the number of verbal and word-for-word translations, as can be seen from some of the examples below: English:cornflakes ; English Industrial Revolution 볿 (18-19 ); skyscraper ;,supermarket (); brain washing ( ); oat-flakes (). Ukrainian: karbovanets', hryvnia, Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's Parliament), Hero of Ukraine; the Merited Worker of Arts/Ukraine's Merited Worker of Arts; / , Chairman of the District/Region Rada of People's Deputies; the Medal for Labour Distinction; 1,11,111 the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi (First, Second, Third Degree).

It is worth mentioning that some of the above-given and other Ukrainian units of the kind may be translated into English either as asyndetic structures or as syndetic (prepositional) word-groups. The latter are absolutely predominant in conversational English, the former are more common in written (or official) language: / the Honoured Teacher/Artist of Ukraine or Ukraine's Honoured Teacher/Artist; the medal for Labour Distinction or the Labour Distinction Medal. But: Hero of Ukraine.

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