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Методические подходы к анализу финансового состояния предприятия

Проблема периодизации русской литературы ХХ века. Краткая характеристика второй половины ХХ века

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Характеристика шлифовальных кругов и ее маркировка

Служебные части речи. Предлог. Союз. Частицы

КАТЕГОРИИ:






Quantifiers some / any / no




Some, any, no употребляются как с неисчисляемыми существительными (money, work), так и с исчисляемыми существительными (friends, books). e.g. some money, some friends • Some обычно обозначает немного или несколько. Some используется в утверждениях. e.g. He has got some money. She has got some books. • Any обычно используется в вопросах, а not any в отрицаниях. e.g. Have you got any coffee? No, I haven’t got any coffee. • В отрицаниях можно употреблять no вместо not any. e.g. They haven’t got any friends. They’ve got no friends. • Any также употребляется с without, never seldom, rarely, hardly etc. e.g. He left without any excuse. She has hardly any money left. • Мы употребляем some в вопросах, когда что-то предлагаем или просим. e.g. Would you like some orange juice? (offer) Can I have some water, please? (request)

Exercise№1. Fill in a/an or some.

1. I read ___ book and listened to ___ music.

2. I need ___ money. I want to buy ___ food.

3. We met ___ interesting people at the party.

4. I’m going to open ___ window to get ___ fresh air.

5. She didn’t eat much for lunch – only ___ apple and ___ bread.

6. We live in ___ big house. There’s ___ nice garden with ___ beautiful trees.

7. I’m going to make ___ table. First I need ___ wood.

8. Listen to me carefully. I’m going to give you ___ advice.

9. I want to write ___ letter. I need ___ paper and ___ pen.

 

Exercise№2. Fill in some or any.

1. I’m going to buy ___ posters.

2. There aren’t ___ shops in this part of the town.

3. George and Alice haven’t got ___ children.

4. Have you got ___ brothers or sisters?

5. Are there ___ letters for me?

6. Would you like ___ tea?

7. We haven’t got ___ bread, so I’m going out to buy ___.

8. During our holidays we visited ___ very interesting places.

9. I went out to buy ___ milk but they didn’t have ___ in the shop.

10. I’m thirsty. Can I have ___ water, please?

 

Exercise№3. Complete the sentences. Use some or any+one of the words:

air cheese help milk photographs

batteries friends languages letters shampoo

1. I want to wash my hair. Is there _____?

2. This evening I’m going to write _____.

3. I haven’t got my camera, so I can’t take ______.

4. Do you speak ___ foreign _____?

5. Yesterday evening I went to a restaurant with _____ of mine.

6. Can I have _____ in my coffee, please?

7. The radio isn’t working. There aren’t _____ in it.

8. It’s hot in this office. I’m going out for ___ fresh ___.

9. ‘Would you like _____?’- ‘No, thank you. I’ve had enough to eat.’

10. I can do this job alone. I don’t need _____.

 

  утверждение вопрос отрицание
лицо someone somebody anyone anybody no one/not anyone nobody/not anybody
предмет something anything nothing/not anything
место somewhere anywhere nowhere/not anywhere

 

Exercise№4. Fill in somebody/anybody,something/anything, somewhere/anywhere.

1. She said ____ but I didn’t understand anything.

2. Has ___ found my blue pencil? – No, I’m sorry.

3. Would ___ help me, please? – Yes, I can help you.

4. Have you got ___ to eat? – No, I haven’t.

5. Tom, can you give me ___ to drink, please?

6. Is there ___ in the house? – No, it’s deserted.

7. Do you know ___ about London transport? – No, I don’t.

8. What’s wrong? – There’s ___ in my eye.

9. He never does ___ homework.

10. ___ has broken the window. I don’t know who.

11. He didn’t say ___.

12. I’m looking for my keys. Has ___ seen them? – No, I’m sorry.

13. Teach me ___ exciting.

14. I didn’t eat ___ because I wasn’t hungry.

15. Dad, can we go ___ on Sunday? – Yes, what about going to the zoo?

 

Exercise№5 . Complete the sentences with no- or anybody/anything/anywhere.

1. I don’t want ___ to drink. I’m not thirsty.

2. The bus was completely empty. There was ___ on it.

3. ‘Where did you go for your holidays?’- ‘___. I stayed at home.’

4. I went to the shops but didn’t buy ___.

5. ‘What did you buy?’- ‘___. I couldn’t find ___ I wanted.’

6. The town was still the same when I returned years later. ___ had changed.

7. Have you seen my watch? I’ve looked all over the house but can’t find it ___.

8. There was complete silence in the room. ___ said ___.

 

Когда мы употребляем any, anyone/anybody, anything и anywhere в утверждениях, их значение будет другим. a) You can call me any time you like. (не важно когда) b) Anyone/anybody can go to the new sports centre. (не важно кто) c) You can ask me anything you want. (не важно что) d) We can go anywhere you wish. (не важно куда)

 

Exercise№6. Complete the sentences. Use any+noun or anyone/anybody, anything, anywhere.

1. Which bus do I have to catch? – Any bus. They all go to the centre.

2. Which day shall I come? - I don’t mind. _____.

3. What do you want to eat? –_____. I don’t mind. Whatever you have.

4. Where shall I sit? - It’s up to you. You can sit _____ you like.

5. What sort of job are you looking for? - _____. It doesn’t matter.

6. What time shall I phone tomorrow? - _____. I’ll be in all day.

7. Who shall I invite to the party? – I don’t mind. _____ you like.

8. Which newspaper shall I buy? - _____. Whatever they have in the shop.

 

Exercise№7. Fill in some/any, something/anything, someone/anyone.

1. Where is Dad? – In the garage. He is repairing _____.

2. Look, there is ___ sitting under the tree. – Sorry, I can’t see ___. It’s too dark.

3. The children want to have ___ crisps for their party but we don’t have ___.

4. I can’t find my bag. – Is there ___ in it? - Yes, of course, ___ popcorn, ___chocolate but not ___ money.

5. Where is Tom? – He is at the shop. He is buying ___ for lunch.

6. I’d like ___ milk for breakfast. – Sorry, but we haven’t got ___ milk. But you can have ___ orange juice.

7. Yesterday there was a box in the street. – Was there ___ in it? – Yes, there were ___ old magazines in it.

8. I can’t pay. I haven’t got ___ money.

9. I didn’t need ___ to help me.

10. She wanted to do ___ to help me.

 

Exercise№8. Translate into English.

1. Дайте мне что-нибудь поесть.

2. Есть ли кто-либо в этой комнате?

3. Никто не ответил на наше письмо.

4. Ходил ли он куда-либо вчера?

5. Хотите ли вы взять с собой что-либо?

6. Вы что-то сказали?

7. Сделайте что-нибудь, чтобы прекратить этот шум.

8. Пойдет ли кто-нибудь в парк сегодня вечером?

9. Мы нигде не могли посмотреть этот фильм.

10. Купили ли вы что-либо вчера в магазине?


Conditionals

 

Условные предложения включают придаточные условия (предположение с союзом if) и главное предложение (результат). В начале предложений if-придаточные выделяются запятой. If the weather is good tomorrow, we’ll go to the beach – Будь завтра хорошая погода, мы пойдём на пляж. Условные предложения могут быть реального условия (0 и 1 типы) и нереального условия (2 и 3 типы).   Type 0 Conditionals - Данный тип условного предложения выражает обыденность и аксиомы, где if равнозначен when/whenever. В обеих частях предложения употребляется Present Simple. If/When the sun shines, snow melts.   Type 1 Conditionals – Данный тип условного предложения описывает реальные вероятные ситуации, относящиеся к настоящему или будущему. На русский язык такие предложения переводятся будущим временем. В английском языке в главном предложении используется Future Simple, в придаточном условия не может быть употреблено будущее время, поэтому используются времена группы Present. If Andrew exercises more, he will win the competition. –Если Андрей будет больше заниматься, он выиграет соревнование.   Type 2 Conditionals - Данный тип условного предложения описывает воображаемые ситуации, которые противоречат действительности. Действие относится к настоящему или будущему. На русский язык такие предложения переводятся сослагательным наклонением. В английском предложении в придаточном условия используется Past Simple или Past Continuous, в главной части - would/could/might + Infinitive. If I won the lottery, I would buy a yacht. - Если бы я выиграл в лотерее, я бы купил яхту. В придаточном условия 2 типа форма глагола “to be” - were используется вместо was. Конструкция “If I were you” употребляется, когда мы хотим дать совет. If I were you, I would go to the match. - На твоем месте я бы пошел на матч.   Type 3 Conditionals - Данный тип условного предложения описывает воображаемые ситуации, которые противоречат действительности. В отличие от предыдущего типа действие относится к прошлому. Такие предложения употребляются для выражения сожаления или критики. В придаточном условия используется Past Perfect , в главной части would/could +have + Participle II. If Jack had passed the ball to Jim, their team would have won the game. – Если бы Джек передал мяч Джиму, их команда выиграла бы игру.

 

Condition If - clause Main clause
Real   Type 0 General truth   Present Simple Present Simple
  If (when) my uncle comes,   we play basketball.
  Type 1 Real present   Present Simple/Cont. Future Simple
  If I have more time,   I will go to the gym.
Unreal   Type 2 Unreal present   Past Simple/Cont. would/could/might + Infinitive
  If I were you,   I would take part in the Olympic Games.  
  Type 3 Unreal past   Past Perfect would/could +have + Participle II
  If I hadn’t given up sport,   I could have become a professional footballer.  

Exercise №1. Match the parts of the sentences to make one and correct.

1. If you heat water,   a. it produces greenhouse gases
2. If people go to gym,   b. the sea level rises
3. If I am late,   c. they become extinct
4. If you have a toothache,   d. the greenhouse effect gets worse.
5. When factories use fossil fuels,   e. it boils.
6. When you burn oil,   f. you save up energy
7. When people cut down trees,   g. my father takes me to school.
8. When icebergs melt,   h. it is deforestation
9. If you use air conditioningwisely,   i. you visit the dentist
10. If people don’t protect animals,   j. they become fit and healthy.

Exercise №2. Decide which conditional it is, 0 or 1? Put the verbs in the correct form.

1. If you ………………(drop) an apple, it ………………(fall).

2. I ………………(get) tired if I ………………(work) too much.

3. Water ………………(boil) if you ………………(heat) it to 100 C.

4. I ………………(phone) my friend if I ………………(have) time today.

5. If you ………………(freeze) water, it ………………(turn) into ice.

6. If it ………………(rain) today, I ………………(stay) at home.

7. If I ………………(see) you tomorrow, I ………………(buy) you a drink.

8. We………………(go)to the beach if it……………… (be) warm tomorrow.

Exercise №3. Match the parts of the sentences to make one and correct.

1. If I wonthe lottery,   a. if it didn’t rain.
2. If I were in Brazil,   b. I wouldn’t do that.
3. They wouldn’t work any more   c. I would travel around the world.
4. We could go out   d. if you were me?
5. What would you do   e. if they won the lottery.
6. If I were you   f. I would go to Rio de Janeiro.

 

Exercise №4. Fill in the sentences with the correct form of the given verb.

Type O Conditional If the sun …………………(rise) high, it ……………………(become) very hot. Plants ………………….(die), if it ……………………………(not, rain). People …………………..(get) fat, if they ………………….(eat) junk food. If a person ………………..(practise) sports, he or she always ……… (feel) good.  
Type 1 Conditional If you ……………(cook) the supper, I………..……(wash) the dishes. She ………………..(pass) the test if she ……………..(study) hard. If it …….. (be) sunny, we …….. (go) to the park. Paula ………..(be) sad if Juan ………. (leave.)  
Type 2 Conditional   If I ……………..(have) a million dollars, I ……………..(buy)a big house. If dogs …………(have) wings, they ………….(be) able to fly. If I ……….(be) you, I ……………(drive) more carefully in the rain. Paula ………(be) sad if Juan …………………..(leave).  

Exercise №5. Fill in the sentences with the correct form of the given verb.

If you …………(boil) water, it ……………( turn) to steam. If I ………. (be) an astronaut, I ……………..(take) the photos of Turkey from space. If you ………… (put) a stone in the water, it …………..(go) down. If you ……………(put) oil into water it ………………….(float). If there …………..(be) no water on earth, we ………………….(not, exist). If you ……………….(be) a bird, where …………..you ………….( fly) to? Anna …………………..(pass) the test if she ………(study) hard enough. If you ……………..( heat) ice it ……………..(melt). I ……………….(not, do) that if I ………………….(be) you. If he ………………….(get) any worse I…………………. (take) him to the doctor's. If the snow ………………….(get) any worse we………… (have) to stop walking. If ice (melt), it ……………………(turn) into water.

 

Exercise №6. Rewrite each sentence. Start with if. Be careful with modal verbs.

(1st Conditional)

1. I hope he asks me to marry him because I would accept.

If _________________________________________________

2. I’m planning to get a laptop so I can send emails when I’m travelling.

If _________________________________________________

3. I don’t want to be late for my interview so I hope the train comes on time.

If _________________________________________________

4. Maribel hopes to pass the driving test because she wants to buy a car.

If ___________________________________________________

(2nd Conditional)

5. The government wants to build more roads but they don’t have enough money.

If ___________________________________________________

6. I’d like to swim more often but I don’t live near a pool.

If ___________________________________________________

7. Terry would like to travel around the world but he’s scared of flying.

If ____________________________________________________

8. Celia’s dream is to join a choir but unfortunately she can’t sing.

If _______________________________________________________

Exercise №7. Find and translate sentences with 2 conditional from the text.

Tim wants a job in a restaurant. The chef interviews him.

Chef: Now Tim, some more difficult questions. Don’t worry, these are not everyday situations. What would you do if there were a fire in the kitchen?

Tim: I would run away if I saw a fire.

Chef: I see. If a waiter shouted at you, would you do anything?

Tim: Yes, I’d throw a cake at him if he didn’t stop.

Chef: Hmm. If the shops were closed and you needed some eggs, where would you get some?

Tim: If I wanted some eggs, I’d look for a chicken.

Well, have you decided? If you were the chef, would Tim get the job?

Exercise №8. In your exercise book, copy and complete these sentences with if…, using a comma if necessary.

1. If I found some money on the street, …

2. … I’d fly to Peru.

3. …I might jump out of the window.

4. If I met a celebrity…

5. … she wouldn’t be very pleased.

6. I would be really worried…

7. … I’d invite all my friends to a big party.

8. … I couldn’t get home.

9. If I got a car for my birthday…

10. I’d phone the police if…

Exercise №9. Put the verb into the correct tense. The situation refers to the past.

1. If I hadn’t been rude to him yesterday, we (not, quarrel).

2. If she (not, throw) away some important papers, I wouldn’t be so angry.

3. I wouldn’t have taken a taxi if I (not, have) so much luggage.

4. He (not, lose) his way if you had explained to him how to get there.

5. They (help) if you had told the truth.

6. He wouldn’t have lost his way if you (meet) him.

7. If you (call) the police, they would have arrested him.

8. If they hadn’t be in a hurry, they (not, refuse) to drive you to the station.

9. I (explain) everything to you if you had asked me.

10. If you (ask) for advice, I would have advised you to stay at home.

Exercise №10. Read a situation and write a sentence with if.

1. Sue is unhappy because John doesn’t love her.

2. Ann was so happy yesterday because Paul told he loved her.

3. Glen stayed at home because the weather was bad.

4. Molly doesn’t trust him because she doesn’t know him well.

5. Peter didn’t argue because he didn’t know the subject well.

6. I didn’t drink the coffee because it wasn’t tasty.

7. The child learnt the poem quickly because it was simple.

8. I took the cat home because it looked unhappy.

9. I don’t watch TV because I don’t have much time.

10. I read a lot because I want to know a lot.

Exercise №11. Make sentences, as in the example.

Example: I don’t walk much. – If I were you, I would walk much.

I’ve sold my car. – If I were you, I wouldn’t have sold my car.

1. I didn’t go to the party.

2. I ate a lot yesterday.

3. I don’t learn English.

4. I always trust people.

5. I told him the truth.

6. I didn’t buy that bag.

7. I smoke a lot.

8. I don’t eat much fruit.

9. I didn’t take part in the championship.

10. I’m angry with you.

Exercise №12. Choose the correct form of the verbs to complete the sentences.

1- If Steven hadn’t passed the exam, he ___________________ to university.

a. Didn’t go b. Wouldn’t go c. Wouldn’t have gone

2- If you ___________________ some ice in a drink, it makes it cooler.

a. Have put b. Put c. Will put

3- I ___________________ for the cinema if you pay for the restaurant.

a. Paid b. Will pay c. Am paying

4- If you___________________ a positive attitude, you won’t succeed in business.

a. Don’t have b. Didn’t have c. Haven’t had

5- What ___________________ if your car broke down on the motorway?

a. Will you do b. Would you do c. Are you doing

6- I ___________________ by taxi if I were you

a. Would go b. Must go c. Will go

7- If John got a pay rise, we ___________________ to a bigger apartment.

a. Might have moved b. Might be moving c. Might move

8- They ___________________ that hotel if they’d known how expensive it was.

a. Didn’t choose b. Wouldn’t have chosen c. Wouldn’t choose.

 

 

Форма глаголов в условных предложениях зависит от того, к какому времени относится действие, выраженное данным предложением. Времена действия в главном и придаточном предложениях могут не совпадать, в данном случае мы имеем дело со смешанным типом условного предложения – Mixed Conditionals.

 

If-clause Main clause
Действие относится к настоящему – Past Simple/Cont. If I knew her address, Действие относится к прошлому would/could +have + Participle II I would have written her a letter long ago.
Действие относится к прошлому – Past Perfect   If you had prepared everything beforehand, Действие относится к настоящему - would/could/might + Infinitive     he wouldn’t wait for you now.

 

Exercise №13. Rewrite the sentences, as in the example.

Example: I didn’t book a room in a hotel. That’s why I have problems now. – If I had booked a room in a hotel, I wouldn’t have problems now.

1. You didn’t take the pills. That’s why you feel bad now.

2. I didn’t clean the room yesterday that’s why I have to do it now.

3. The film is interesting. I’ve seen it twice.

4. Peter is a good lawyer. He earned a lot of money last year.

5. Pam hasn’t given up smoking that’s why she feels awful.

6. Tom is a brilliant player. He scored three goals during the previous match.

7. You are late again. Why didn’t you take a taxi?

8. The bag is cheap that’s why I bought it.

9. I’m afraid of flying. I didn’t go there by plane.

10. Jack lost the race. He is not a champion now.

 

 


Reported Speech

 

Direct speech (прямая речь) - это речь какого-нибудь лица, переданная дословно. Прямая речь заключается в кавычки. Напр., 'I'm very tired', Mary said. Reported speech(косвенная речь)- это речь какого-нибудь лица, переданная точно по смыслу, но не дословно. Она не заключается в кавычки. После вводящего глагола можно употребить союз that. Напр.,Mary said (that) she was very tired.  
Глаголsayупотребляется:   1) для введения прямой/ косвенной речи а) без предлога to, если не указывается к кому обращена речь. Напр., Jerry said, 'I need some money.' Jerry said (that) he needed some money. say without an object   b) с предлогом to, если указывается к кому обращена речь. Напр., Jerry said to me, 'I need some money.' Jerry said to me (that) he needed some money. say+to+ object   2) в выражениях say good morning/afternoon, say something, say so, say one's prayers, say a few words, say no more, etc.   Глаголtellупотребляется без предлога to:   1) для введения прямой/косвенной речи когда указывается к кому обращена речь. Напр., Jerry told me, 'I need some money.' Jerry told me (that) he needed some money. tell + object   2) в выражениях tell the truth/a lie, tell a secret, tell a story, tell the time, tell the difference, tell sb one's name, tell sb the way, etc.  

 

 

Exercise№1.Fill in the gaps with say or tell in the correct form.

 

1. Kathy _____ her friends the truth about what had happened that night.

2. 'I'll call you later', he _____to her.

3. Ken _____ us that he was having a barbecue at the weekend.

4. 'Please turn the volume down,' Cindy ____.

5. 'Open your books at page 29', _____ the teacher to her pupils.

6. 'Could you _____ me the time, please?' he asked me.

7. Jane ran down the stairs, _____ good morning and left for work.

8. My grandmother used to _____ us exciting stories by the fire every night.

9. 'Why did you ____ everybody my secret?' he asked.

10. 'I'm sorry. I can't _____ you the way to the station because I'm lost too,' he said.

11. Richard (1)_____ Sarah that he was having a party on Saturday night. He (2)_____ that it would start early but it would finish quite late. He (3)______ her to bring her sister along as well. Sarah (4)_____ she was looking forward to going. Richard (5)_____ her he would probably call again on Friday to(6)______ her the way to his house.

12. 'Call me at 5 o'clock,' he _____ to me.

13. Susan _____ the class about her trip to Kenya.

14. 'Don't take my glass!' she _____ angrily.

15. Grace _____ us that she was moving house.

 

  Для преобразования высказываний из прямой речи в косвенную   Ø употребляются глаголы say и tell,а личные и притяжательные местоимения заменяются в соответствии со смыслом. Напр., Mary says, 'I don't know his address.' Mary says (that) she doesn't know his address. Ø Если вводящий глагол стоит в Past Simple, то временные формы других глаголов изменяются следующим образом:  
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Present Simple 'I want to find a better job,' he said. Past Simple He said he wanted to find a better job.
Present Continuous 'He is sleeping,' she said to me. Past Continuous She told me (that) he was sleeping.
Present Perfect 'I have washed the car,' he said. Past Perfect He said (that) he had washed the car.
Past Simple 'I played football,' John said. Past Perfect John said that he had played football.
Past Continuous 'We were dancing all night long,' she said. Past Perfect Continuous/ Past Continuous She said (that)they had been dancing/ were dancing all night long.
Future (will) 'I'll try again tomorrow,' he said. Conditional (would) He said (that) he would try again the next day.

 

Ø Формы Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous не изменяются:

'John had fixed the car by the time we had dinner,' she said. → She said (that)John had fixed the car by the time they had dinner.

Ø В косвенной речи остаются без изменения модальные глаголы:would, could, might, should, ought:

'I could run fast when I was young,' Tom said. → Tom said (that) he could run fast when he was young.

Ø Когда вводящий глагол стоит в Present Simple, Future Simple, Present Perfect,либо когда предложение выражает непреложную истину(general truth), временные формы глаголов в косвенной речи остаются без изменения:

'I made a cake,' Grandma says. → Grandma says that she made a cake.

'It is cold in the Arctic,' said the teacher. → The teacher said (that) it is cold in the Arctic.

Ø Указательные местоимения, наречия места и маркеры заменяются следующим образом:

 

Direct Speech Reported Speech
tonight, today, this week/month/year that night, that day, that week/month/year
now then, at that time/moment, immediately
yesterday, last night/week/month/year the day before/the previous day, the previous night/week/month/year
tomorrow, next week/month/year the following day/the day after, the following/next week/month/year
two days/months/years, etc. ago two days/months/years, etc. before
here there
come go

 

 

Exercise№2. Turn from direct into reported speech.

1. 'I can't find my bag,' she said.

2. 'They are working in the garden,' he said.

3. 'We got married six months ago,' she said to us.

4. 'I'll go shopping tomorrow,' he said.

5. 'I bought a new car last week,' he said.

6. 'We aren't doing anything next week,' they said.

7. 'I can't go out tonight,' she said to me.

8. 'I forgot to pay the bill,' he said.

9. 'We've bought you a present,' she said to me.

10. 'I'll phone you tomorrow,' she said to Peter.

11. 'I've been seeing patients all morning,' the doctor said.

12. 'I'm going to the dentist now,' said Lynn.

13. 'You can find a lot of information on the Internet,' Paul said to his sister.

14. 'Jamie has never seen a dolphin before,' John said.

15. 'The sun rises in the east,' the teacher said.

 

Exercise№3.In which of the following sentences do the tenses not change? Why? Then, turn the following statements from direct into reported speech.

1. 'I'll paint the house next week,' he says.

2. 'I've put the washing in the washing machine,' Rose said.

3. 'A giraffe is bigger than a mouse,' he said.

4. 'We haven't seen Tom for two weeks,' she said.

5. 'I haven't phoned my uncle since last month,' she says.

6. 'Birds can fly,' the student said.

7. 'Leaves fall from the trees in autumn,' he said.

8. 'He is studying for an exam now,' she said.

9. 'We visited the circus last weekend,' they said.

10. 'She dropped the vase on the floor,' Tony said.

11. 'He took the money to the bank this morning,' she said.

12. 'The earth moves round the sun,' the teacher said.

 

Reported Questions Ø Для преобразования вопросов из прямой речи в косвенную употребляются:ask, inquire, wonder, want to know. В косвенных вопросах употребляется порядок слов повествовательного предложения, вопросительный знак опускается. Временные формы, местоимения и маркеры заменяются так же, как и в случае высказываний. 'Where do you live?' he asked me. → He asked me where I lived. Ø Если прямой вопрос начинается с вопросительного слова (who, what, where, why, when, how, etc.), то и косвенный вопрос начинается с того же вопросительного слова. 'Why are you late?' Mother asked me.→ Mother asked me why I was late. Ø Если прямой вопрос начинается со вспомогательного глагола(is, do, have, etc.) или модального глагола(can, may, etc.), то косвенный вопрос начинается с if либо с whether. 'Did Tom go to bed late last night?' she asked me.→ She asked me if/whether Tom had gone to bed late last night.  

 

Exercise№4.Turn the following questions from direct into reported speech.

 

1. She asked, 'Can you play the piano?'

2. He asked, 'Do you like fish?'

3. 'Who broke the window?' the teacher asked the students.

4. 'Where are you going on holiday this year?' Josh asked me.

5. 'What time is the wedding?' Helen asked.

6. 'What have you done today?' Mother asked.

7. 'Did John go to the party last night?'Jill asked.

8. 'Why are you laughing?' Philip asked.

9. She asked, 'Will you take me to work tomorrow?'

10. 'How long does it take you to walk home from here?' Peter asked.

11. 'Will you lend me some money?' Lesley asked Sara.

12. 'Who is this man?' the old lady asked her husband.

13. 'Why did they miss their flight to Canada?' Paul asked.

14. 'When will you visit your parents?' Sheila asked.

15. 'Have you seen my blue jacket anywhere?' she asked.

 

Exercise№5. Rewrite these sentences in direct speech.

1. Fred asked me what I wanted to eat.

2. Ann told Frank that his friend was waiting for him.

3. Mr. Jones said that he has paid the bill.

4. Helen told Janet that she hadn't bought a new dress yet.

5. Sue asked me if I would help her with her homework.

 

Reported Orders/Requests/Commands Ø Для преобразования приказов и указаний из прямой речи в косвенную употребляются глаголы order или tell: order/tell+ лицо+(not) to-infinitive 'Give me your money!' he said to me. → He ordered me to give him my money. 'Don't shoot!' he said to them. → He ordered them not to shoot. 'Cut the paper in two pieces,' she said to me. → She told me to cut the paper into two pieces. Ø Для преобразования просьб употребляются глаголы ask или beg: ask/beg+лицо+(not) to-infinitive 'Listen to me, please,' Laura said to Bob.→ Laura asked Bob to listen to her. 'Please, please don't tell anyone I'm here,' she said to him.→ She begged him not to tell anyone (that) she was there. Ø Для преобразования предложений (suggestion) употребляется глагол suggest+-ing form 'Let's play a game,' father said to us. 'Shall we play a game?' father said to us. → Father suggested playing a game. 'How about playing a game?' father said to us.  

 

Exercise№6. Turn from direct into reported speech.

 

1. Mary said to me, 'Come with me, please. '

2. The shop assistant said to the child, 'Don't touch anything.'

3. The secretary said to me, 'Wait here, please.'

4. She said, 'Shall we go swimming?'

5. The park keeper said to them, 'Don't walk on the grass.'

6. He said to them, 'Don't stay out late tonight.'

7. Anny said to Barry, 'Please, please help me.'

8. 'Don't worry so much.' said Jane to me.

9. 'Turn off the television!' his mother said/

10. 'Could you have the project ready by Monday?' Peter said to Sue.

 

Exercise№7.Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

 

1. 'Don't touch the switch with wet hands,' she said to him.

toShe told _______________ the switch with wet hands.

2. 'What did you see in the distance?' she asked me.

seenShe asked ____________ in the distance.

3. 'Have you got a pen?' he asked her.

ifHe ___________ got a pen.

4. 'Don't touch the exhibits,' the museum guide said to us.

warnedThe museum guide __________ the exhibits.

5. 'Be quiet!' the teacher said to us.

toldThe teacher __________ quiet.

6. 'Have you spoken to Ann yet?' he asked me.

hadHe asked me __________ to Ann yet.

7. 'Why didn't you call the police?' he asked me.

calledHe asked me ___________ the police.

8. 'I will need your help,' he said to Jane.

wouldHe told Jane ____________ help.

 

Introductory Verbs Помимо say и tell, могут употребляться и другие вводящие глаголы, которые более точно передают смысл речи. Изучите следующую таблицу:  
Introductory verb+ to-infinitive Introductory verb+ sb+ to-inf Introductory verb+ -ing form Introductory verb+that clause
agree, offer, promise, refuse, threaten ask, advise, beg, command, invite,order, remind, warn admit, accuse sb of, apologise for, complain to sb of/about, suggest, deny agree, complain, deny, promise
'Yes, I'll type the letters.'→ He agreed to type the letters. 'Shall I make coffee?'→ He offered to make coffee. 'Of course I'll write home every day.'→ He promised to write home every day. 'No, I won't go to the dentist.'→ He refused to go to the dentist. 'Give me all your money or I'll shoot.' → He threatened to shoot if I didn't give him all my money. 'Could you do me a favour?'→ He asked me to do him a favour. 'You should see a doctor.'→ He advised me to see a doctor. 'Please, please mummy don't leave me alone! '→ She begged her mother not to leave her alone. 'Cease fire!'→ He commanded the soldiers to cease fire. 'Would you like to go to the concert with me?'→ She invited me to go to the concert with her. 'Don't forget to take your passport.'→ He reminded me to take my passport. 'Don't touch the exhibits.'→ He warned us not to touch the exhibits. 'Yes, I lied to you.'→ He admitted lying/having lied to me. 'You broke the vase.'→ She accused me of breaking/having broken the vase. 'I'm sorry I forgot to call you.'→ He apologised for forgetting/having forgotten to call me. 'I have a terrible headache.'→ He complained to me of having a terrible headache. 'Let's go to the beach.'→ He suggested going to the beach. 'I didn't call the police.'→ He denied calling/having called the police.   'Yes, it's a really beautiful painting.'→ He agreed that it was a beautiful painting. 'You always arrive late.'→ He complained that I always arrived late. 'I didn't steal the money.'→ He denied that he had stolen the money. 'Of course I'll come back.'→ He promised that he would come back.  

 

 

Exercise№8. Choose an introductory verb and turn the following from direct into reported speech.

advised(x2), asked, ordered, warned, promised, begged, offered, refused, suggested

 

1. 'I think you should eat more vegetables,' my mother said to me.

2. 'Please get me a glass of water,' he said to Jill.

3. 'No, I won't help you,' she said to Jim.

4. 'I'll buy you something nice for your birthday,' her mother said to her.

5. 'Don't play near the road because it's dangerous,' he said to us.

6. 'Would you like me to do the shopping?' she said.

7. 'Please, please don't leave me alone in the dark,' she said to her parents.

8. 'How about going to the cinema tonight?' he said.

9. 'Go to bed!.. Now!' his father said to him.

10. 'Shall we watch a video?' they said.

 

Exercise№9.Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold.

 

1. 'I'm not giving you any ice cream until you have eaten your dinner,' said Barry's mother.

refusedBarry's mother __________ any ice cream until he had eaten his dinner.

2. 'I'm sorry I've broken the window,' said Sean.

apologisedSean __________ the window.

3. 'Shall I help you carry the box?' asked Tom.

offeredTom ___________ the box.

4. 'You should tell your parents the truth,' my friend said to me.

advisedMy friend __________ my parents the truth.

5. 'Could you go to the bank?' he said to me.

askedHe __________ the bank.

6. 'I really will remember to feed the fish,' Maurice said.

promisedMaurice ____________ the fish.

7. 'No, I won't drive you to the football match,' Mum said to me.

refusedMum __________ the football match.

8. 'Why don't we go to Paris for our holiday this year?' she said.

suggestedShe __________ Paris for their holiday that year.

9. 'You opened my letters,' he said to Ann.

accusedHe __________ his letters.

10. 'Don't drive so fast!' the policeman said to Jenny.

warnedThe policeman ____________ so fast.

 

Exercise№10. Use appropriate introductory verbs to rewrite the sentences in reported speech.

 

1. 'I will never tell lies again,' he said.

2. 'You should go to the dentist,' she said to me.

3. 'I'm sorry I spilt coffee on your carpet,' he said.

4. 'We could go to the cinema tonight,' she said.

5. 'No, I won't come with you,' he said to me.

6. 'Yes, I cheated in the exam,' he said to me.

7. 'Stop teasing me or I'll tell the teacher,' Suzie said to Bill.

8. 'I didn't say anything to the police,' he said.

9. 'Don't go sailing without a life jacket,' the instructor told us.

10. 'Stand up at once!' the sergeant said to the soldier.

 

Reporting a Conversation/Dialogue При преобразовании диалога в косвенную речь - употребляют and, as, adding that, and she/he added that, because, but, since, etc. - вводящий глагол может быть в форме present participle (offering, begging, explaining, etc.) - восклицания Oh!, Oh dear!, Well! в косвенной речи опускаются 'Oh! This is a fantastic painting!' she said. 'Who painted it?'→ She said (that) that was a fantastic painting and (she) asked who (had) painted it. ('oh' is omitted) He took the elderly lady by the arm and said, 'Can I help you cross the street?'→ He took the elderly lady by the arm, offering to help her cross the street.  

 

Exercise№11.Turn the following sentences into reported speech, as in the example.

 

'I'm sorry I'm late for the lesson,' Sam said. 'I missed the bus.'→ Sam apologised for being late for the lesson and said (that) he had missed the bus.

 

1. 'You'd better go to bed,' Mum said. 'You have to get up early tomorrow.'

2. 'Shall I help you with your suitcases?' Stan asked. 'They look very heavy.'

3. 'I didn't take your wallet,' Karen said. 'Ben took it.'

4. 'Would you like to go to the opera?' Maria asked. 'I've got an extra ticket.'

5. 'You broke the lamp,' Leo said. 'I saw you do it.'

6. 'Yes, I'll take you to the station,' Dad said. 'I'm going that way anyway.'

7. 'Please, please don't go into the house.' Amy said. 'There is someone in there.'

8. 'Don't touch the iron,' Jane said. 'It's very hot.'

9. 'Do a hundred sit-ups,' the sergeant said to the soldiers. 'Don't take too long, either!'

10. 'Who's there?' she asked. 'Come in.'

 

 

При преобразовании косвенной речи в прямую мы следуем тем же правилам, но в обратном порядке (см. с.65-66). Помимо этого мы: - заключаем прямую речь в кавычки, - указываем говорящего перед или после прямой речи, - ставим запятую перед прямой речью либо после нее, - начинаем прямую речь с заглавной буквы, - ставим вопросительный знак после прямой речи, если прямая речь - вопрос. Jack told me that he was leaving the next day. → Jack said to me, 'I'm leaving tomorrow.' or 'I'm leaving tomorrow,' Jack said to me. The boss asked me if I enjoyed my work. → The boss asked me, 'Do you enjoy your work?' or 'Do you enjoy your work?' the boss asked me.

 

Exercise№12. Turn the following sentences from reported into direct speech.

 

1. Trevor asked me if I had posted the letter.

2. Sarah told me she was looking for a new job.

3. Brian wanted to know what time the train to Leeds left.

4. She said that she didn't like jogging.

5. He said he would be back the following day.

6. He asked how much my new car had cost.

7. I asked Marie if she could do the shopping for me.

8. Jill asked Roy to close the window.

9. Julia begged her parents to let her go to the party.

10. Adam said that he had never ridden a horse before.

 

Exercise№13. Rewrite the texts in direct speech.

A. Julie asked where Steve was. Ann said he had gone shopping. Julie asked if he would be long. Ann told her he would be back any minute.

Julie

Ann

Julie

Ann

 

B. Paul asked what the time was. Sue said it was 10:30. Paul said that he couldn't wait any more. Sue told him to go back to work. Paul asked if he could leave a message for Steve. Sue asked him to write it in Steve's diary.

 

Paul

Sue

Paul

Sue

Paul

Sue

 

Exercise№14.Turn the underlined sentences from reported into direct speech.

 

I met an old friend yesterday. I hadn't seen her for two years. I asked what she had been doing. We decided to go for a drink. We sat in a cafe for three hours. We talked about many different things. She asked me to give her my phone number and she wrote it down. When we left the cafe, I told her to call me very soon.

 

Exercise№15. Correct the mistakes.

 

1. He asked me where was the post office.

2. She suggested to visit the zoo.

3. Mother said, 'You must always say the truth.'

4. The doctor told me to not exercise a lot.

5. My parents offered giving me a lift to the railway station.

6. Our teacher said to us that the test was quite easy.

7. She asked how could she contact me.

8. He said that Kate had left the last month.

9. The old man told good night and went to bed.

10. Jenny said me, 'I hate Math.'
Tense/Aspect Chart

  Simple Констатация факта Progressive Процесс Perfect Завершенность Perfect Progressive Процесс уже в течение некоторого периода времени
Present usually, always, seldom, every day/year, on Mondays/Tuesdays, at night/weekends, etc. V/ V-s   She paints pictures. now, at the moment, these days, at present, tonight, still, etc.     be(am/is/are) + V-ing She is painting a picture now. for, since, already, just, recently, lately, so far, today, this morning/week, never, ever, how long, yet, etc. have(has) + V3   She has already painted a picture. for, since, already, for a long time, recently, lately, how long, etc.     have(has)+been+ V-ing She has been painting a picture for an hour.
Past yesterday, last night/week/Monday, two days/months ago, then, when, in 2000, etc.   V-ed /V2 She painted a picture last night. while, when, as, all day/night, the whole day, from 5 till 6, etc. was/were+ V-ing She was painting a picture when he came. before, after, already, for, since, just, till/until, when, by, by the time, never, etc. had + V-ed/V3 She had painted a picture before he came. for, since, since the time when, before how long, until, etc.   had+been+ V-ing She had been painting a picture for an hour when he came.
Future tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next year/time, in a week, etc. will + V She will paint a picture tomorrow. tomorrow at this time, this time next Monday, etc. will + be + V-ing She will be painting a picture this time tomorrow. by, by the time, before, until, by then, etc. will + have + V3 She will have painted a picture by the time he comes. by...for, by this time, etc.     will + have +been+ V-ing She will have been painting a picture for an hour by the time he comes.

Irregular Verbs




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